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      Ichthyofauna of the Mata de Itamacaoca, an urban protected area from the upper Munim River basin, Northern Brazilian Cerrado Translated title: Ictiofauna da Mata de Itamacaoca, uma area de proteção urbana da bacia do alto Rio Munim, Cerrado norte brasileiro

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          Abstract

          Abstract: The Munim River basin is one of the main river drainages of the Hydrological unit Maranhão, but there are few published studies which focus on ichthyological surveys and taxonomic work within this basin. The present study aims to provide a fish species inventory of the Mata da Itamacaoca, one of the few urban protected areas from the upper Munim River basin, comparing the ichthyofauna with other lists by conducted at the upper Munim River basin. A total of 42 collection expeditions were conducted, the sampling was conducted at five collecting sites distributed within the boundaries of Mata de Itamacaoca, upper Munim River basin. Diversity indices were calculated and generalised linear models (GLMs) were employed to assess differences in species richness, diversity and evenness depending on season and location in relation to the reservoir dam wall. In order to visualize fish community differences, non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and a one-way PERMANOVA was used to understand whether factors of site, season and location to the dam wall had an effect on fish community compositions. A total of six orders, 13 families, and 23 fish species were found, and the order with the highest species richness, considering all reaches, was Characiformes followed by Cichliformes. The most abundant species was Nannostomus beckfordi, while Pimelodella parnahybae and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were the rarer species sampled. There were no alien invasive species collected within the study area. Species richness was significantly higher below the dam wall, but there were no other significant differences in diversity indices with regards to season or location. Fish community composition was significantly different above and below the dam wall and was significantly affected by sampling site. Season did not have an effect on fish community. This study corroborates other studies conducted in the Unidade Hidrológica Maranhão sensu Hubbert and Renno (2006), that the ichthyofaunal composition and taxonomy of species within this region face major data deficits, anthropogenic impacts, this study may be a baseline for comparing similar environments throughout the region.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: A bacia do rio Munim é uma das principais drenagens da unidade Hidrológica do Maranhão, mas existem poucos estudos publicados que enfoquem levantamentos ictiológicos e trabalhos taxonômicos dentro desta bacia. O presente estudo tem como objetivo fornecer um inventário de espécies de peixes da Mata da Itamacaoca, uma das poucas áreas protegidas urbanas da bacia do alto rio Munim, comparando a ictiofauna com outras listas realizadas na bacia do alto rio Munim. Foram realizadas 42 expedições de coleta, a amostragem foi conduzida em cinco locais de coleta distribuídos dentro dos limites da Mata de Itamacaoca, bacia do alto rio Munim. Índices de diversidade foram calculados e modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs) foram empregados para avaliar diferenças na riqueza de espécies, diversidade e equitabilidade dependendo da estação e localização em relação à parede da barragem do reservatório. A fim de visualizar as diferenças da comunidade de peixes, escalonamento multidimensional não métrico (nMDS) e um PERMANOVA unilateral foi usado para entender se os fatores de local, estação e localização da parede da barragem afetavam a composição da comunidade de peixes. Um total de seis ordens, 13 famílias e 23 espécies de peixes foram encontradas, sendo que a ordem com maior riqueza de espécies, considerando todos os trechos, foi Characiformes seguida por Cichliformes. A espécie mais abundante foi Nannostomus beckfordi, enquanto Pimelodella parnahybae e Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus foram as espécies mais raras amostradas. Não houve espécies exóticas invasoras coletadas na área de estudo. A riqueza de espécies foi significativamente maior abaixo da parede da barragem, mas não houve outras diferenças significativas nos índices de diversidade em relação à estação do ano ou localização. A composição da comunidade de peixes foi significativamente diferente acima e abaixo da parede da barragem, e foi significativamente afetada pelo local de amostragem. A estação do ano não afetou a comunidade de peixes. Este estudo corrobora outros estudos realizados na Unidade Hidrológica Maranhão sensu Hubbert and Renno (2006), que a composição ictiofaunística e taxonomia das espécies desta região enfrentam grandes déficits de dados. Impactos antropogênicos, este estudo pode ser uma linha de base para comparar ambientes semelhantes em toda a região.

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          Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity.

          The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant of physical habitat in streams, which in turn is a major determinant of biotic composition; Secondly, aquatic species have evolved life history strategies primarily in direct response to the natural flow regimes; Thirdly, maintenance of natural patterns of longitudinal and lateral connectivity is essential to the viability of populations of many riverine species; Finally, the invasion and success of exotic and introduced species in rivers is facilitated by the alteration of flow regimes. The impacts of flow change are manifest across broad taxonomic groups including riverine plants, invertebrates, and fish. Despite growing recognition of these relationships, ecologists still struggle to predict and quantify biotic responses to altered flow regimes. One obvious difficulty is the ability to distinguish the direct effects of modified flow regimes from impacts associated with land-use change that often accompanies water resource development. Currently, evidence about how rivers function in relation to flow regime and the flows that aquatic organisms need exists largely as a series of untested hypotheses. To overcome these problems, aquatic science needs to move quickly into a manipulative or experimental phase, preferably with the aims of restoration and measuring ecosystem response.
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            Biological invasions of fresh water: Empirical rules and assembly theory

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              Recent studies clarify where the most vulnerable species live, where and how humanity changes the planet, and how this drives extinctions. We assess key statistics about species, their distribution, and their status. Most are undescribed. Those we know best have large geographical ranges and are often common within them. Most known species have small ranges. The numbers of small-ranged species are increasing quickly, even in well-known taxa. They are geographically concentrated and are disproportionately likely to be threatened or already extinct. Current rates of extinction are about 1000 times the likely background rate of extinction. Future rates depend on many factors and are poised to increase. Although there has been rapid progress in developing protected areas, such efforts are not ecologically representative, nor do they optimally protect biodiversity. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bn
                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1676-0611
                2020
                : 20
                : 4
                Affiliations
                São Luís Maranhão orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Amazônia Legal Brazil
                Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Laboratório de Sistemática e Evolução de Peixes Teleósteos orgdiv2Departamento de Zoologia Brazil
                Makhanda orgnameSouth African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity orgdiv1Centre for Invasion Biology South Africa
                Makhanda orgnameSouth African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity orgdiv1Research Chair in Inland Fisheries and Freshwater Ecology orgdiv2Department of Science and Innovation/National Research Foundation South Africa
                São Luís Maranhão orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Conservação Brazil
                Chapadinha Maranhão orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Laboratório de Sistemática e Ecologia de Organismos Aquáticos orgdiv2Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Brazil
                São Luís Maranhão orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Departamento de Oceanografia a e Limnologia orgdiv2Laboratório de Organismos Aquáticos Brazil
                Chapadinha Maranhão orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais orgdiv2Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Brazil
                Article
                S1676-06032020000400307 S1676-0603(20)02000400307
                10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1116

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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