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      Transmission of Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (Spain): Temporal follow-up in the intermediate and definitive hosts

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          Abstract

          Background

          Paramphistomosis caused by Calicophoron daubneyi and fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica are common parasitic diseases of livestock animals. Transmission of the diseases depends on the presence of intermediate hosts, i.e. freshwater gastropods such as lymnaeids. We carried out a 2-year-long study of the dynamics of the snail population acting as the intermediate host for these parasites, considering the population structure in terms of size/age and infection status. In addition, we determined the kinetics of trematode egg excretion in grazing cows. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used to analyze the associations between different response variables and snail size, sampling month and weather-related variables.

          Results

          Of the molluscan species examined, Galba truncatula, Radix peregra, Anisus ( Anisus) leucostoma and Pisidium casertanum ( n = 2802), only G. truncatula was infected with C. daubneyi or F. hepatica, at prevalence rates of 8.2% and 4.4% respectively. The probability of infection with C. daubneyi or F. hepatica was linearly related to snail size, although in different ways (negative for C. daubneyi and positive for F. hepatica). The total snail population increased in winter, when specimens of all size classes were found. Infected snails were more abundant during spring-autumn. Mature cercariae of both parasites were found in most seasons. In the statistical models, the sampling month accounted for a high percentage (71.9–78.2%) of the observed variability in snail abundance. The inclusion of climatic variables in the models moderately increased the percentage of deviance explained (77.7–91.9%). Excretion of C. daubneyi eggs in cow faeces was always higher than that of F. hepatica eggs.

          Conclusions

          Particular care should be taken to prevent pastures and the surrounding environment being contaminated with parasite eggs during winter-spring, when the number of snails susceptible to miracidial infections is maximal. This is therefore the optimal time for treating grazing animals. Nevertheless, control of trematodosis based only on chemotherapy is difficult in an area such as the study area, where environmental factors favour the regular appearance of snail populations harbouring mature cercariae.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1892-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R. by S. N. WOOD

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            Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Fasciola hepatica Risk

            Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a physically and economically devastating parasitic trematode whose rise in recent years has been attributed to climate change. Climate has an impact on the free-living stages of the parasite and its intermediate host Lymnaea truncatula, with the interactions between rainfall and temperature having the greatest influence on transmission efficacy. There have been a number of short term climate driven forecasts developed to predict the following season's infection risk, with the Ollerenshaw index being the most widely used. Through the synthesis of a modified Ollerenshaw index with the UKCP09 fine scale climate projection data we have developed long term seasonal risk forecasts up to 2070 at a 25 km square resolution. Additionally UKCIP gridded datasets at 5 km square resolution from 1970-2006 were used to highlight the climate-driven increase to date. The maps show unprecedented levels of future fasciolosis risk in parts of the UK, with risk of serious epidemics in Wales by 2050. The seasonal risk maps demonstrate the possible change in the timing of disease outbreaks due to increased risk from overwintering larvae. Despite an overall long term increase in all regions of the UK, spatio-temporal variation in risk levels is expected. Infection risk will reduce in some areas and fluctuate greatly in others with a predicted decrease in summer infection for parts of the UK due to restricted water availability. This forecast is the first approximation of the potential impacts of climate change on fasciolosis risk in the UK. It can be used as a basis for indicating where active disease surveillance should be targeted and where the development of improved mitigation or adaptation measures is likely to bring the greatest benefits.
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              An ultrasensitive capture ELISA for detection of Fasciola hepatica coproantigens in sheep and cattle using a new monoclonal antibody (MM3).

              A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a new monoclonal antibody (mAb MM3) is reported for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) in feces of infected hosts. The mAb MM3 was produced by immunization of mice with a 7- to 40-kDa purified and O-deglycosylated fraction of F. hepatica ESAs, which has previously been shown to be specific for the parasite. The specificity and sensitivity of the MM3 capture ELISA were assessed using feces from sheep and cattle. Sheep feces were obtained from a fluke-free herd (with most animals harboring other nematodes and cestodes), from lambs experimentally infected with 5-40 F. hepatica metacercariae and in some cases treated with triclabendazole at 14 wk postinfection (PI), and from uninfected control lambs. Cattle feces were collected at the slaughterhouse from adult cows naturally infected with known numbers of flukes (from 1 to 154) or free of F. hepatica infection (though in most cases harboring other helminths). The MM3 capture ELISA assay had detection limits of 0.3 (sheep) and 0.6 (cattle) ng of F. hepatica ESA per milliliter of fecal supernatant. The assay detected 100% of sheep with 1 fluke, 100% of cattle with 2 flukes, and 2 of 7 cattle with 1 fluke. The false-negative animals (5/7) were probably not detected because the F. hepatica individuals in these animals were immature (5-11 mm in length). As expected, coproantigen concentration correlated positively (r = 0.889; P < 0.001) with parasite burden and negatively (r = 0.712; P < 0.01) with the time after infection at which coproantigen was first detected. Nevertheless, even in animals with low fluke burdens (1-36 parasites), the first detection of F. hepatica-specific coproantigens by the MM3 capture ELISA preceded the first detection in egg count by 1-5 wk. In all sheep that were experimentally infected and then untreated, coproantigen remained detectable until at least 18 wk PI, whereas in sheep that were experimentally infected and then flukicide treated, coproantigen became undetectable from 1 to 3 wk after treatment. None of the fecal samples from sheep or cattle negative for fascioliasis but naturally infected with other parasites including Dicroelium dendriticum showed reactivity in the MM3 capture ELISA. These results indicate that this assay is a reliable and ultrasensitive method for detecting subnanogram amounts of F. hepatica antigens in feces from sheep and cattle, facilitating early diagnosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fjavier.iglesias@usc.es
                marta.gonzalez.warleta@xunta.es
                jose.antonio.castro.hermida@xunta.es
                maria.cordoba@deroceras.com
                c.gonzalez.lanza@csic.es
                y.manga@csic.es
                mercedes.mezo.menendez@xunta.es
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                29 November 2016
                29 November 2016
                2016
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratorio de Parasitología, Centro de Investigaciones Agrarias de Mabegondo, Instituto Galego de Calidade Alimentaria-Xunta de Galicia, Carretera AC-542 de Betanzos a Mesón do Vento, Km 7, 15318 Abegondo (A Coruña), Spain
                [2 ]Departamento de Zooloxía, Xenética e Antropoloxía Física, Facultade de Bioloxía, Campus Vida, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña), Spain
                [3 ]Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA
                [4 ]Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-ULE, 24346 Grulleros (León), Spain
                Article
                1892
                10.1186/s13071-016-1892-8
                5126829
                27894356
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003329, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad;
                Award ID: AGL2011-30563-C03-03
                Award Recipient :
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                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2016

                Parasitology

                calicophoron daubneyi, fasciola hepatica, snail hosts, galba truncatula, seasonal trends, gam

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