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      Microbiome and morbid obesity increase pathogenic stimulus diversity


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          The microbiome, the relationship between environmental factors, a high-fat diet, morbid obesity, and host response have been associated with cancer, only a small fraction of which (<10%) are genetically triggered. This nongenetic association is underpinned by a worldwide increase in morbid obesity, which is associated with both insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. The connection of the microbiome and morbid obesity is reinforced by an approximate shift of about 47% in the estimated total number of bacteria and an increase from 38,000,000,000,000 in a reference man to 56,000,000,000,000 in morbid obesity leading to a disruption of the microbial ecology within the gut. Humans contain 6,000,000,000 microbes and more than 90% of the cells of the human body are microorganisms. Changes in the microflora of the gut are associated with the polarization of ion channels by butyrate, thereby influencing cell growth. The decrease in the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes together with a change in the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria is observed in morbid obesity. The disruption of homeostasis of the microflora in the obese changes signaling and crosstalk of several pathways, resulting in inflammation while suppressing apoptosis. The interactions between the microbiome and morbid obesity are important to understand signaling and crosstalk in the context of the progression of the six-step sequence of carcinogenesis. This disruption of homeostasis increases remodeling of the extracellular matrix and fibrosis followed by the none-resolvable precancerous niche as the internal pathogenic stimuli continue. The chronic stress explains why under such circumstances there is a greater proclivity for normal cells to undergo the transition to cancer cells.

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          The inflammasomes.

          Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated inflammasome activity and human heritable and acquired inflammatory diseases highlight the importance this pathway in tailoring immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review mechanisms directing normal inflammasome function and its dysregulation in disease. Agonists and activation mechanisms of the NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF, and AIM2 inflammasomes are discussed. Regulatory mechanisms that potentiate or limit inflammasome activation are examined, as well as emerging links between the inflammasome and pyroptosis and autophagy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            The ongoing explosion of antibiotic-resistant infections continues to plague global and US health care. Meanwhile, an equally alarming decline has occurred in the research and development of new antibiotics to deal with the threat. In response to this microbial "perfect storm," in 2001, the federal Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance released the "Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance; Part 1: Domestic" to strengthen the response in the United States. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) followed in 2004 with its own report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic Discovery Stagnates, A Public Health Crisis Brews," which proposed incentives to reinvigorate pharmaceutical investment in antibiotic research and development. The IDSA's subsequent lobbying efforts led to the introduction of promising legislation in the 109 th US Congress (January 2005-December 2006). Unfortunately, the legislation was not enacted. During the 110 th Congress, the IDSA has continued to work with congressional leaders on promising legislation to address antibiotic-resistant infection. Nevertheless, despite intensive public relations and lobbying efforts, it remains unclear whether sufficiently robust legislation will be enacted. In the meantime, microbes continue to become more resistant, the antibiotic pipeline continues to diminish, and the majority of the public remains unaware of this critical situation. The result of insufficient federal funding; insufficient surveillance, prevention, and control; insufficient research and development activities; misguided regulation of antibiotics in agriculture and, in particular, for food animals; and insufficient overall coordination of US (and international) efforts could mean a literal return to the preantibiotic era for many types of infections. If we are to address the antimicrobial resistance crisis, a concerted, grassroots effort led by the medical community will be required.
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              Linking the Human Gut Microbiome to Inflammatory Cytokine Production Capacity.

              Gut microbial dysbioses are linked to aberrant immune responses, which are often accompanied by abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines. As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP), we investigate how differences in composition and function of gut microbial communities may contribute to inter-individual variation in cytokine responses to microbial stimulations in healthy humans. We observe microbiome-cytokine interaction patterns that are stimulus specific, cytokine specific, and cytokine and stimulus specific. Validation of two predicted host-microbial interactions reveal that TNFα and IFNγ production are associated with specific microbial metabolic pathways: palmitoleic acid metabolism and tryptophan degradation to tryptophol. Besides providing a resource of predicted microbially derived mediators that influence immune phenotypes in response to common microorganisms, these data can help to define principles for understanding disease susceptibility. The three HFGP studies presented in this issue lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at understanding the interplay between microbial, genetic, and environmental factors in the regulation of the immune response in humans. PAPERCLIP.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                25 April 2019
                25 April 2019
                : 2
                : ( publisher-idID: fopen/2019/01 )
                : 10
                [1 ] Theodor-Billroth-Academy®, , Germany, USA,
                [2 ] INCORE, International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy®, , Germany, USA,
                [3 ] Department of Surgery, Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, , Cottbus, Germany,
                [4 ] Risk-Based Decisions Inc., , Sacramento, CA, USA,
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: b-bruecher@ 123456gmx.de
                Author information
                © B.L.D.M. Brücher and I.S. Jamall, Published by EDP Sciences 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 22 March 2018
                : 21 November 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 178, Pages: 16
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.4open-sciences.org/
                Life Sciences - Medicine
                Disruption of homeostasis-induced signaling and crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm “Epistemology of the origin of cancer”
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                4open 2019, 2, 10

                Medicine,Chemistry,Physics,Mathematics,Materials science,Life sciences
                Microbiome,Cancer,Signaling,Microflora,Chronic inflammation,Viriome,Fibrosis,Microbiology,Precancerous niche,Cell transition,Somatic mutation theory,Carcinogenesis,Virology


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