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      Innate Immunity and Neuroinflammation

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          Abstract

          Inflammation of central nervous system (CNS) is usually associated with trauma and infection. Neuroinflammation occurs in close relation to trauma, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. Low-level neuroinflammation is considered to have beneficial effects whereas chronic neuroinflammation can be harmful. Innate immune system consisting of pattern-recognition receptors, macrophages, and complement system plays a key role in CNS homeostasis following injury and infection. Here, we discuss how innate immune components can also contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

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          Most cited references 291

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          Pathogen recognition and innate immunity.

          Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.
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            The inflammasomes.

            Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated inflammasome activity and human heritable and acquired inflammatory diseases highlight the importance this pathway in tailoring immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review mechanisms directing normal inflammasome function and its dysregulation in disease. Agonists and activation mechanisms of the NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF, and AIM2 inflammasomes are discussed. Regulatory mechanisms that potentiate or limit inflammasome activation are examined, as well as emerging links between the inflammasome and pyroptosis and autophagy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in noncoding region of C9ORF72 causes chromosome 9p-linked FTD and ALS.

              Several families have been reported with autosomal-dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), genetically linked to chromosome 9p21. Here, we report an expansion of a noncoding GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the gene C9ORF72 that is strongly associated with disease in a large FTD/ALS kindred, previously reported to be conclusively linked to chromosome 9p. This same repeat expansion was identified in the majority of our families with a combined FTD/ALS phenotype and TDP-43-based pathology. Analysis of extended clinical series found the C9ORF72 repeat expansion to be the most common genetic abnormality in both familial FTD (11.7%) and familial ALS (23.5%). The repeat expansion leads to the loss of one alternatively spliced C9ORF72 transcript and to formation of nuclear RNA foci, suggesting multiple disease mechanisms. Our findings indicate that repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is a major cause of both FTD and ALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2013
                15 June 2013
                : 2013
                Affiliations
                1Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, Heinz Wolff Building, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
                2Unit of Neurology, Department of Neurological Disorders, Santa Chiara Hospital, Largo Medaglie d'oro 1, 38100 Trento, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Hidde Bult

                Article
                10.1155/2013/342931
                3697414
                23843682
                Copyright © 2013 Abhishek Shastri et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology

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