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      Urinary incontinence and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public health facilities of Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Urinary incontinence is any involuntary leakage of urine. It has serious negative health impacts on quality of life in pregnant women. According to the scientific committee of the International Continence Society report, worldwide prevalence of urinary incontinence estimated ranges between 32% and 64% among pregnant women. However, there is scarcity of evidence on prevalence and associated factors of urinary incontinence in Ethiopia.

          Objective:

          The aims of this study were to assess prevalence and associated factors of urinary incontinence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public health facilities of Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia.

          Methodology:

          Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Physical examination was done to assess the strength of pelvic floor muscles. The data were entered to EPI Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to investigate the factors associated with urinary incontinence.

          Results:

          Among 317 respondents, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 23%. The contributing factors that had statistically significant association with urinary incontinence were gestational age (adjusted odds ratio: 9.6 (1.87–49.39, 95%), parity (adjusted odds ratio: 6.32 (1.48–27.05), 95% confidence interval), prior miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio: 6.28 (2.15–18.28), 95% confidence interval), constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 8.25 (3.12–21.84), 95% confidence interval), respiratory problem (adjusted odds ratio: 6.31 (2.05–19.43), 95% confidence interval), and weak pelvic floor muscle (adjusted odds ratio: 7.55 (2.51–22.67), 95% confidence interval).

          Conclusion:

          The prevalence of urinary incontinence is moderate compared to other studies. Gestational age, parity, prior miscarriage, having constipation, having respiratory problem, and weak pelvic floor muscle had significant association with urinary incontinence. This finding will help to increase the awareness of health care professionals involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence.

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          Most cited references 31

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          ICIQ: a brief and robust measure for evaluating the symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence.

          To develop and evaluate the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ), a new questionnaire to assess urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life (QoL). A developmental version of the questionnaire was produced following systematic literature review and views of an expert committee and patients. Several studies were undertaken to evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, including content, construct and convergent validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. The ICIQ was easily completed, with low levels of missing data (mean 1.6%). It was able to discriminate among different groups of individuals, indicating good construct validity. Convergent validity was acceptable, with most items demonstrating 'moderate' to 'strong' agreement with other questionnaires. Reliability was good, with 'moderate' to 'very good' stability in test-retest analysis and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. Items identified statistically significant reductions in symptoms from baseline following surgical and conservative treatment. Item reduction techniques were used to determine the final version and scoring scheme, which also demonstrated good psychometric properties. The final ICIQ comprises three scored items and an unscored self-diagnostic item. It allows the assessment of the prevalence, frequency, and perceived cause of urinary incontinence, and its impact on everyday life. The ICIQ is a brief and robust questionnaire that will be of use in outcomes and epidemiological research as well as routine clinical practice. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            The standardisation of terminology in lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society.

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              • Abstract: not found
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              The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Womens Health (Lond)
                Womens Health (Lond)
                WHE
                spwhe
                Women's Health
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                1745-5057
                1745-5065
                8 October 2020
                2020
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiotherapy, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Science, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [3 ]School of Public Health, College of Health Science, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Arsema Berhe, Department of Physiotherapy, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa 1271, Ethiopia. Email: arsemaber@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1177_1745506520952009
                10.1177/1745506520952009
                7707857
                33028167
                © The Author(s) 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Primary
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2020
                ts1

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