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      In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Combinations of Polyphenols, or Polyphenols and Anticancer Drugs: Perspectives on Cancer Treatment

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          Abstract

          Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer.

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          Most cited references 131

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          Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies.

          Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is emerging. Bioavailability differs greatly from one polyphenol to another, so that the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Mean values for the maximal plasma concentration, the time to reach the maximal plasma concentration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, the elimination half-life, and the relative urinary excretion were calculated for 18 major polyphenols. We used data from 97 studies that investigated the kinetics and extent of polyphenol absorption among adults, after ingestion of a single dose of polyphenol provided as pure compound, plant extract, or whole food/beverage. The metabolites present in blood, resulting from digestive and hepatic activity, usually differ from the native compounds. The nature of the known metabolites is described when data are available. The plasma concentrations of total metabolites ranged from 0 to 4 mumol/L with an intake of 50 mg aglycone equivalents, and the relative urinary excretion ranged from 0.3% to 43% of the ingested dose, depending on the polyphenol. Gallic acid and isoflavones are the most well-absorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, but with different kinetics. The least well-absorbed polyphenols are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catechins, and the anthocyanins. Data are still too limited for assessment of hydroxycinnamic acids and other polyphenols. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of polyphenols.
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            p53-dependent apoptosis modulates the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents.

            Although the primary cellular targets of many anticancer agents have been identified, less is known about the processes leading to the selective cell death of cancer cells or the molecular basis of drug resistance. p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to examine systematically the requirement for p53 in cellular sensitivity and resistance to a diverse group of anticancer agents. These results demonstrate that an oncogene, specifically the adenovirus E1A gene, can sensitize fibroblasts to apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation, 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and adriamycin. Furthermore, the p53 tumor suppressor is required for efficient execution of the death program. These data reinforce the notion that the cytotoxic action of many anticancer agents involves processes subsequent to the interaction between drug and cellular target and indicate that divergent stimuli can activate a common cell death program. Consequently, the involvement of p53 in the apoptotic response suggests a mechanism whereby tumor cells can acquire cross-resistance to anticancer agents.
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              Cell cycle checkpoints: preventing an identity crisis.

               S Elledge (1996)
              Cell cycle checkpoints are regulatory pathways that control the order and timing of cell cycle transitions and ensure that critical events such as DNA replication and chromosome segregation are completed with high fidelity. In addition, checkpoints respond to damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and by inducing transcription of genes that facilitate repair. Checkpoint loss results in genomic instability and has been implicated in the evolution of normal cells into cancer cells. Recent advances have revealed signal transduction pathways that transmit checkpoint signals in response to DNA damage, replication blocks, and spindle damage. Checkpoint pathways have components shared among all eukaryotes, underscoring the conservation of cell cycle regulatory machinery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                24 April 2015
                May 2015
                : 16
                : 5
                : 9236-9282
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133, Italy; E-Mails: kurk84@ 123456gmail.com (M.F.); monicab4@ 123456hotmail.it (M.B.); ilaria3soldi@ 123456hotmail.com (I.T.); modesti@ 123456med.uniroma2.it (A.M.)
                [2 ]Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome 00164, Italy; E-Mail: Laura.masuelli@ 123456uniroma1.it
                [3 ]Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie, Umane e della Salute, Università di Roma, Foro Italico, Rome 00194, Italy; E-Mail: frajese@ 123456hotmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: bei@ 123456med.uniroma2.it ; Tel.: +39-06-7259-6522; Fax: +39-06-7259-6506.
                Article
                ijms-16-09236
                10.3390/ijms16059236
                4463587
                25918934
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                polyphenols, bioavailability, carcinogenesis, anticancer drugs, nanotechnology

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