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      Fish proliferation and rare-earth deposition by topographically induced upwelling at the late Eocene cooling event

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          Abstract

          The deep-sea clay that covers wide areas of the pelagic ocean bottom provides key information about open-ocean environments but lacks age-diagnostic calcareous or siliceous microfossils. The marine osmium isotope record has varied in response to environmental changes and can therefore be a useful stratigraphic marker. In this study, we used osmium isotope ratios to determine the depositional ages of pelagic clays extraordinarily rich in fish debris. Much fish debris was deposited in the western North and central South Pacific sites roughly 34.4 million years ago, concurrent with a late Eocene event, a temporal expansion of Antarctic ice preceding the Eocene–Oligocene climate transition. The enhanced northward flow of bottom water formed around Antarctica probably caused upwelling of deep-ocean nutrients at topographic highs and stimulated biological productivity that resulted in the proliferation of fish in pelagic realms. The abundant fish debris is now a highly concentrated source of industrially critical rare-earth elements.

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          New, improved version of generic mapping tools released

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            Sortable silt and fine sediment size/composition slicing: Parameters for palaeocurrent speed and palaeoceanography

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              Ocean overturning since the Late Cretaceous: Inferences from a new benthic foraminiferal isotope compilation

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ykato@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                18 June 2020
                18 June 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Frontier Research Center for Energy and Resources (FRCER), , The University of Tokyo, ; 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 246X, GRID grid.254124.4, Ocean Resources Research Center for Next Generation (ORCeNG), , Chiba Institute of Technology, ; 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Department of Systems Innovation, , The University of Tokyo, ; 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 Japan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2191 0132, GRID grid.410588.0, Volcanoes and Earth’s Interior Research Center, Research Institute for Marine Geodynamics, , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), ; 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061 Japan
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2191 0132, GRID grid.410588.0, Submarine Resources Research Center, Research Institute for Marine Resources Utilization, , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), ; 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061 Japan
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 3077, GRID grid.31432.37, Department of Planetology, , Kobe University, ; 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 Japan
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9975, GRID grid.5290.e, Faculty of Science and Engineering, , Waseda University, ; 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 Japan
                Article
                66835
                10.1038/s41598-020-66835-8
                7303186
                32555233
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                geochemistry, palaeoclimate, palaeoceanography

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