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      A genome-wide search for human non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes genes reveals a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2.

      Nature genetics

      Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, epidemiology, ethnology, genetics, European Continental Ancestry Group, Genetic Linkage, Genetic Markers, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Japan, Mexican Americans, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2

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          Abstract

          Non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a common disorder of middle-aged individuals characterized by high blood glucose levels which, if untreated, can cause serious medical complications and lead to early death. Genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to this disorder. However, the number of genes involved, their chromosomal location and the magnitude of their effect on NIDDM susceptibility are unknown. We have screened the human genome for susceptibility genes for NIDDM using non-and quasi-parametric linkage analysis methods in a group of Mexican American affected sib pairs. One marker, D2S125, showed significant evidence of linkage to NIDDM and appears to be a major factor affecting the development of diabetes mellitus in Mexican Americans. We propose that this locus be designated NIDDM1.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites.

          The great increase in successful linkage studies in a number of higher eukaryotes during recent years has essentially resulted from major improvements in reference genetic linkage maps, which at present consist of short tandem repeat polymorphisms of simple sequences or microsatellites. We report here the last version of the Généthon human linkage map. This map consists of 5,264 short tandem (AC/TG)n repeat polymorphisms with a mean heterozygosity of 70%. The map spans a sex-averaged genetic distance of 3,699 cM and comprises 2,335 positions, of which 2,032 could be ordered with an odds ratio of at least 1,000:1 against alternative orders. The average interval size is 1.6 cM; 59% of the map is covered by intervals of 2 cM at most and 1% remains in intervals above 10 cM.
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            Pathogenesis of NIDDM. A balanced overview.

            Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) results from an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the earliest detectable abnormality in NIDDM is an impairment in the body's ability to respond to insulin. Because the pancreas is able to appropriately augment its secretion of insulin to offset the insulin resistance, glucose tolerance remains normal. With time, however, the beta-cell fails to maintain its high rate of insulin secretion and the relative insulinopenia (i.e., relative to the degree of insulin resistance) leads to the development of impaired glucose tolerance and eventually overt diabetes mellitus. The cause of pancreatic "exhaustion" remains unknown but may be related to the effect of glucose toxicity in a genetically predisposed beta-cell. Information concerning the loss of first-phase insulin secretion, altered pulsatility of insulin release, and enhanced proinsulin-insulin secretory ratio is discussed as it pertains to altered beta-cell function in NIDDM. Insulin resistance in NIDDM involves both hepatic and peripheral, muscle, tissues. In the postabsorptive state hepatic glucose output is normal or increased, despite the presence of fasting hyperinsulinemia, whereas the efficiency of tissue glucose uptake is reduced. In response to both endogenously secreted or exogenously administered insulin, hepatic glucose production fails to suppress normally and muscle glucose uptake is diminished. The accelerated rate of hepatic glucose output is due entirely to augmented gluconeogenesis. In muscle many cellular defects in insulin action have been described including impaired insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, diminished glucose transport, and reduced glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. The abnormalities account for disturbances in the two major intracellular pathways of glucose disposal, glycogen synthesis, and glucose oxidation. In the earliest stages of NIDDM, the major defect involves the inability of insulin to promote glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Other potential mechanisms that have been put forward to explain the insulin resistance, include increased lipid oxidation, altered skeletal muscle capillary density/fiber type/blood flow, impaired insulin transport across the vascular endothelium, increased amylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide levels, and glucose toxicity.
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              A genome-wide search for human type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes.

              We have searched the human genome for genes that predispose to type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus using semi-automated fluorescence-based technology and linkage analysis. In addition to IDDM1 (in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p21) and IDDM2 (in the insulin gene region on chromosome 11p15), eighteen different chromosome regions showed some positive evidence of linkage to disease. Linkages to chromosomes 11q (IDDM4) and 6q (IDDM5) were confirmed by replication, and chromosome 18 may encode a fifth disease locus. There are probably no genes with large effects aside from IDDM1. Therefore polygenic inheritance is indicated, with a major locus at the major histocompatibility complex.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                8640221
                10.1038/ng0696-161

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