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      The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

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          Abstract

          Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission . Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.

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          Most cited references 459

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          Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology.

          Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. These alphaproteobacteria endosymbionts are transmitted vertically through host eggs and alter host biology in diverse ways, including the induction of reproductive manipulations, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and sperm-egg incompatibility. They can also move horizontally across species boundaries, resulting in a widespread and global distribution in diverse invertebrate hosts. Here, we review the basic biology of Wolbachia, with emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of these fascinating endosymbionts.
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            The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster.

            To combat infection, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster relies on multiple innate defense reactions, many of which are shared with higher organisms. These reactions include the use of physical barriers together with local and systemic immune responses. First, epithelia, such as those beneath the cuticle, in the alimentary tract, and in tracheae, act both as a physical barrier and local defense against pathogens by producing antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species. Second, specialized hemocytes participate in phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign intruders in the hemolymph. Finally, the fat body, a functional equivalent of the mammalian liver, produces humoral response molecules including antimicrobial peptides. Here we review our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Drosophila defense reactions together with strategies evolved by pathogens to evade them.
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              A Wolbachia symbiont in Aedes aegypti limits infection with dengue, Chikungunya, and Plasmodium.

              Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacterial symbionts that are estimated to infect more than 60% of all insect species. While Wolbachia is commonly found in many mosquitoes it is absent from the species that are considered to be of major importance for the transmission of human pathogens. The successful introduction of a life-shortening strain of Wolbachia into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti that halves adult lifespan has recently been reported. Here we show that this same Wolbachia infection also directly inhibits the ability of a range of pathogens to infect this mosquito species. The effect is Wolbachia strain specific and relates to Wolbachia priming of the mosquito innate immune system and potentially competition for limiting cellular resources required for pathogen replication. We suggest that this Wolbachia-mediated pathogen interference may work synergistically with the life-shortening strategy proposed previously to provide a powerful approach for the control of insect transmitted diseases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
                0074-0276
                1678-8060
                August 2014
                August 2014
                : 109
                : 5
                : 644-661
                Affiliations
                Department of Molecular Microbiology, Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Immunology, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                [+ ] Corresponding author: mlorena@ 123456jhsph.edu

                Additional support was provided by a JHMRI Post-doctoral fellowship (to RCS) and a Calvin S and Helen H Lang Post-doctoral fellowship (to JV-R). RCS and JV-R contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                0074-0276130597
                10.1590/0074-0276130597
                4156458
                25185005

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 180, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Articles

                immunity, malaria, mosquito, plasmodium, innate

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