Background/Aims: Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. It is also clear that the current therapy, angiotensin II blockage, cannot prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We had previously demonstrated that an antifibrotic agent, SMP-534, reduced extracellular matrix production induced by transforming growth factor-β in vitro, and that SMP-534 prevented renal fibrosis and urinary albumin in diabetic db/db mice via a nonantihypertensive mechanism. We expected that combined use of SMP-534 and losartan would produce a more highly renoprotective action. Methods: We examined the effects of combined treatment with SMP-534 and losartan on urinary albumin and glomerular fibrosis in db/ db mice. Diet containing these agents was provided from age 9 to 25 weeks. Blood and urine analyses were performed at 8, 17, and 25 weeks. At the end of the study, kidney tissues were histologically analyzed. Results: SMP-534 significantly suppressed an increase in urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated the progression of glomerular fibrosis in db/db mice, whereas losartan did not. Combined treatment with SMP-534 and losartan markedly prevented the increase of urinary albumin excretion compared with treatment with either SMP-534 or losartan alone. In contrast, renal histological analysis revealed that combined treatment did not significantly prevent an increase of mesangial expansion in the kidney compared with treatment with SMP-534 alone. Conclusion: A combination of the two agents, SMP-534 and losartan, might be a valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.