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      Cardiorespiratory Adaptations during Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training in Men and Women

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          This study investigated the effects of endurance followed by strength training (ES, men n = 16; women n = 15), the reverse exercise order (SE, men n = 18, women n = 13) and concurrent endurance and strength training performed on alternating days (AD, men n = 21, women n = 18) on cardiorespiratory parameters. Peak oxygen consumption (

          O 2peak) and oxygen consumption at sub-maximal power outputs (
          O 2submax) of 50 to 175 Watts in men and 50 to 125 Watts in women were assessed during an incremental cycling test both before and after 24 weeks of training. Increases in
          O 2peak in both men and women were statistically larger in AD (18±9% and 25±11%) compared to ES (7±9% and 12±12%, p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively) and SE (7±9% and 10±8%, p = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). No statistical group interaction was observed for
          O 2submax in men, but in women
          O 2submax was statistically lower at week 24 in ES compared to AD at 75 W (-2±6% vs. +3±6%, p = 0.027) and 125 W (-4±5% vs. +2±5%, p = 0.010). These findings indicate that endurance and strength training performed on alternating days may optimize the adaptations in
          O 2peak in both sexes, while performing ES training in women may optimize cardiorespiratory fitness at sub-maximal power outputs.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women.

          To quantify the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and to all-cause mortality within strata of other personal characteristics that predispose to early mortality. DESIGN--Observational cohort study. We calculated CVD and all-cause death rates for low (least fit 20%), moderate (next 40%), and high (most fit 40%) fitness categories by strata of smoking habit, cholesterol level, blood pressure, and health status. Preventive medicine clinic. Participants were 25341 men and 7080 women who completed preventive medical examinations, including a maximal exercise test. Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. There were 601 deaths during 211996 man-years of follow-up, and 89 deaths during 52982 woman-years of follow-up. Independent predictors of mortality among men, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were low fitness (RR, 1.52;95% CI, 1.28-1.82), smoking (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.39-1.97), abnormal electrocardiogram (RR, 1.64;95% CI, 1.34-2.01), chronic illness (RR, 1.63;95% CI, 1.37-1.95), increased cholesterol level (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59), and elevated systolic blood pressure (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59). The only statistically significant independent predictors of mortality in women were low fitness (RR, 2.10; 95% Cl, 1.36-3.21) and smoking (RR, 1.99; 95% Cl, 1.25-3.17). Inverse gradients were seen for mortality across fitness categories within strata of other mortality predictors for both sexes. Fit persons with any combination of smoking, elevated blood pressure, or elevated cholesterol level had lower adjusted death rates than low-fit persons with none of these characteristics. Low fitness is an important precursor of mortality. The protective effect of fitness held for smokers and nonsmokers, those with and without elevated cholesterol levels or elevated blood pressure, and unhealthy and healthy persons. Moderate fitness seems to protect against the influence of these other predictors on mortality. Physicians should encourage sedentary patients to become physically active and thereby reduce the risk of premature mortality.
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            Justification of the 4-mmol/l lactate threshold.

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              Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity.

              To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV*o2max). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV*o2max; (3) a time to exhaustion test (t(lim)) at 100% vV*o2max; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V*o2max. Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p < 0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p < 0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV*o2max (p < 0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V*o2max (ml/kg(0.75)/min) (p < 0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for t(lim) and the second ventilatory threshold (%V*o2max). Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                29 September 2015
                : 10
                : 9
                [1 ]Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
                [2 ]Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
                University of Rome Foro Italico, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: In addition, the authors would like to declare that despite the funding provided by Polar Electro Oy the authors did not have competing financial interests that might have influenced the outcome of the present article. The financial support received does not alter the authors' adherence to the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MS KH. Performed the experiments: MS KY KH. Analyzed the data: MS KY CA KH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MS KY CA KH. Wrote the paper: MS KY CA KH.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 15
                The authors received funding from the following organisations: Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture,; Polar Electro Oy, The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
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