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      The Next Generation of the ITC Test Translation and Adaptation Guidelines

      European Journal of Psychological Assessment
      Hogrefe Publishing
      Test translation, test adaptation

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          Summary: The ITC Test Translation and Adaptation Guidelines have been available for nearly 7 years, and numerous researchers and practitioners have provided comments on their strengths and weaknesses. This paper addresses three goals: First, comments on the 22 guidelines that have resulted from the numerous field-tests and reviews are presented. Second, where possible, specific suggestions for revising the ITC Guidelines are described. Finally, three suggestions for essential research to improve the methodology associated with translating and adapting tests are presented.

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          Most cited references13

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          Guidelines for adapting educational and psychological tests: A progress report

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            Towards an Integrated Analysis of Bias in Cross-Cultural Assessment

            A central methodological aspect of cross-cultural assessment is the interpretability of intergroup differences: Do scores obtained by subjects from different cultural groups have the same psychological meaning? Equivalence (or the absence of bias) is required in making valid cross-cultural comparisons. As cross-cultural comparisons are becoming increasingly popular and important, the problem of bias and its detection is receiving increased attention from researchers. Three kinds of bias are discussed and illustrated, namely construct bias, method bias, and item bias (or differential item functioning). Methods to identify bias are reviewed. An overview is given of common sources of each kind of bias. It is argued that an integrated treatment of all forms of bias is needed to enhance the validity of cross-cultural comparisons. The predominant focus on item bias techniques has the unfortunate implication that construct and method bias are examined insufficiently.
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              Adapting Instruments for Use in Multiple Languages and Cultures: A Review of the ITC Guidelines for Test Adaptations

              Summary: To facilitate the development of valid multicultural/multilingual tests, the International Test Commission (ITC) prepared the ITC Guidelines on Test Adaptations . This paper reviews the current version (cf. Van de Vijver & Hambleton, 1996 ), which consists of 22 guidelines on recommended practices pertaining to context, development, administration, documentation, and test-score interpretation, by identifying key principles in test adaptations and comparing them to a content analysis of the ITC Guidelines. The content analysis revealed a number of inconsistencies and ambiguities in a few guidelines, and proposals for reformulating them are given. A checklist to supplement the more narrative guidelines would also be helpful. Nevertheless, the review clearly demonstrates that the ITC Guidelines on Test Adaptations address key principles in test adaptations and constitute a significant standard or “code of conduct” in this field.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Psychological Assessment
                Hogrefe Publishing
                September 2001
                : 17
                : 3
                : 164-172
                [ 1 ] University of Massachusetts at Amherst
                Author notes
                Hambleton Ronald K., University of Massachusetts, Hills House, Room 152, 01003, Amherst, USA, +1 413 545-0262 +1 413 545-4181 rkh@ 123456educ.umass.edu
                Self URI (journal-page): https://econtent.hogrefe.com/loi/jpa
                Original Articles

                Assessment, Evaluation & Research methods,Psychology,General behavioral science
                Test translation,test adaptation


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