The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cash conversion cycle and firm performance of small and medium-sized entities (SMEs) in Nigeria. SMEs are potentials for Nigerian economy growth; contributing to gross domestic product, employment generation, poverty reduction and industrialization. The study employed the panel data regression analysis using financial data from a sample of 311 Nigerian SMEs for the period 2007-2013. The findings of the study revealed a negative association between cash conversion cycle, inventory holding period and accounts payable period with SMEs profitability; and a statistically significant negative relationship between accounts receivable period and SMEs’ profitability. The findings also found a significant positive relationship between firm size, leverage, growth opportunities and firm age and SMEs’ profitability. Thus, the result of the study indicates that Nigerian SMEs with a shorter cash conversion cycle and low growth opportunities hold more cash. This study contributes to existing literature on the relationship between cash conversion cycle and SMEs’ profitability in developing economies. However, this study is limited to non-financial and non-service SMEs.