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Enhancement of motor skill learning by a combination of ideal model-observation and self-observation

, RPT, MS 1 , , RPT, PhD 1 , *

Journal of Physical Therapy Science

The Society of Physical Therapy Science

Action observation, Active error detection, Motor learning

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      Abstract

      [Purpose] In sports physical therapy, video of a patient’s movement or of a skilled model’s movement has been used as observational learning methods for injury prevention and movement modification. Positive effects of model video observation have been reported. This study aimed to clarify the effect on motor skill learning using a combination of model-observation and self-observation, which is thought to act as an enhanced method for active error detection by comparing model-observation and self-observation alone for acquisition of correct sports movement. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five healthy females were randomly allocated into three groups comprising model- and self-observation, model-observation, and self-observation. The motor task performed was a half golf swing using an elastic club. Shoulder grip angle between both shoulder lines and the acromia grip strength were measured as an index of body rotation using a three-dimensional motion analyzer. Change in the shoulder grip angle in the three groups was analyzed at pre-, immediate delayed retention, and delayed retention tests. [Results] A significant difference in shoulder grip angle was observed among the three groups for the immediate delayed retention test. The combined model and self-observation group had a value closer to 90 degrees compared to the other two groups. [Conclusion] Observation combining model and self-observation exerted a positive effect on short-term motor skill learning.

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      Most cited references 24

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        While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1) ] School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Shinshu University: 3-1-1 Nagano, Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan
            Author notes
            [* ]Corresponding author. Teiji Kimura (E-mail: tkimura@ 123456shinshu-u.ac.jp )
            Journal
            J Phys Ther Sci
            J Phys Ther Sci
            JPTS
            Journal of Physical Therapy Science
            The Society of Physical Therapy Science
            0915-5287
            2187-5626
            15 September 2017
            September 2017
            : 29
            : 9
            : 1555-1560
            5599820
            jpts-2017-246
            10.1589/jpts.29.1555
            2017©by the Society of Physical Therapy Science. Published by IPEC Inc.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ )

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