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      Outbreak of Hospital Infection from Biofilm-embedded Pan Drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Due to a Contaminated Bronchoscope

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          Abstract

          Background

          Colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) has been defined as pandrug-resistant (PDR) strain. Outbreaks of PDR P. aeruginosa especially in pulmonary tract infections due to contaminated bronchoscopes have rarely been reported. The emergence of pandrug-resistant strains in both CF (Cystic Fibrosis) and non-CF clinical isolates over recent years remains of a great concern. Hospital wards contaminated with PDR P. aeruginosa infection, must be shot down until their eradication. Health Authorities must be informed immediately and infection control strategies must be implemented.

          Aim

          To report such an outbreak and modify the infection control strategy in an academic hospital in Ankara Turkey.

          Methods

          From October to December 2013, PDR-Pseudomonas aerogionsa were identified from bronchial cultures of 15 patients who had undergone bronchoscopy prior to the infection. Three batches of surveillance cultures were obtained from the environmental objects and healthcare workers related to the procedures. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for bacterial typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion and E-test methods.

          Findings

          A total of 70 specimens were obtained during the first surveillance operation. One Colistin-resistant P. aeroginosa was isolated from a bronchoscope. Although the disinfection protocols for bronchoscope were revised and implemented, seven additional bronchial cases were identified thereafter. The pathogen was identified from two subsequent surveillance cultures and was not eliminated until Ethylene oxide sterilization was added to the disinfection protocol. PFGE revealed that all 15 isolates from the patients and the three isolates from the bronchoscope shared a common pattern with minor variance. XbaI restriction enzyme turned out better than SpeI in interpreting bacterial pulse types with BioNumerics 6.0. The most suitable cut off value for SpeI was above 80% Dice similarity while for XbaI above 95%Dice similarity with BioNumerics 6.0.

          Conclusion

          The outbreak of “Colistin” pan drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeroginosa was caused by a contaminated bronchoscope and was terminated by the implementation of a revised disinfection protocol for bronchoscope.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing.

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            Transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy.

            To review reports on the transmission of infections by flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy in order to determine common infecting microorganisms, circumstances of transmission, and methods of risk reduction. Relevant English-language articles were identified through prominent review articles and a MEDLINE search (1966 to July 1992); additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. All selected articles related to transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy or bronchoscopy; 265 articles were reviewed in detail. Two hundred and eighty-one infections were transmitted by gastrointestinal endoscopy, and 96 were transmitted by gastrointestinal endoscopy, spectrum of these infections ranged from asymptomatic colonization to death. Salmonella species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were repeatedly identified as the causative agents of infections transmitted by gastrointestinal endoscopy, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria, and P. aeruginosa were the most common causes of infections transmitted by bronchoscopy. One case of hepatitis B virus transmission via gastrointestinal endoscopy was documented. Major reasons for transmission were improper cleaning and disinfection procedures; the contamination of endoscopes by automatic washers; and an inability to decontaminate endoscopes, despite the use of standard disinfection techniques, because of their complex channel and valve systems. The most common agents of infection transmitted by endoscopy are Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium species. To prevent endoscopic transmission of infections, recommended disinfection guidelines must be followed, the effectiveness of automatic washers must be carefully monitored, and improvements in endoscope design are needed to facilitate effective cleaning and disinfection.
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              Production of extracellular matrix by Candida albicans biofilms.

              Growth of Candida albicans biofilms and production of extracellular matrix were monitored by dry weight, colorimetric and radioisotope assays, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under static incubation conditions synthesis of matrix material was minimal, but increased dramatically when developing biofilms were subjected to a liquid flow with the result that the cells were enveloped in extracellular polymer. These findings suggest that production of matrix material could contribute to the resistance of biofilm cells to antifungal agents in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101560191
                39130
                Tap Chi Y Hoc Du Phong
                Tap chi y hoc du phong = Journal of preventive medicine
                0868-2836
                2 December 2017
                27 October 2017
                2017
                08 December 2017
                : 2
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Metu, Ankara, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Microbiology, Rafik Saydam Hifzi saha, Ankara, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Medical Microbiology, Kuru Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Radiology, SİFA Medical Center, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey
                [5 ]Department of Organic Chemistry, Tabriz University, Tabriz-Iran
                [6 ]Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: Nader Alipour, Department of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Metu, Ankara, Turkey, Tel: +90-554-6162952; Fax: +90-262-6412926; nalipoure@ 123456yahoo.com
                NIHMS922513
                10.21767/2572-5483.100014
                5722239

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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