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      Force‐Sensing Catheters During Pediatric Radiofrequency Ablation: The FEDERATION Study

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          Based on data from studies of atrial fibrillation ablations, optimal parameters for the TactiCath (TC; St. Jude Medical, Inc) force‐sensing ablation catheter are a contact force of 20 g and a force‐time integral of 400 g·s for the creation of transmural lesions. We aimed to evaluate TC in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients undergoing ablation.

          Methods and Results

          Comprehensive chart and case reviews were performed from June 2015 to March 2016. Of the 102 patients undergoing electrophysiology study plus ablation, 58 (57%) underwent ablation initially with a force‐sensing catheter. Patients had an average age of 14 (2.4–23) years and weight of 58 (18–195) kg with 15 patients having abnormal cardiac anatomy. Electrophysiology diagnoses for the + TC group included 30 accessory pathway–mediated tachycardia, 24 atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, and 7 other. Baseline generator settings included a power of 20 W, temperature of 40°, and 6 cc/min flow during lesion creation with 11 patients (19%) having alterations to parameters. Seventeen patients (30%) converted to an alternate ablation source. A total of 516 lesions were performed using the TC with a median contact force of 6 g, force‐time integral of 149 g·s, and lesion size index of 3.3. Median‐term follow‐up demonstrated 5 (10%) recurrences with no acute or median‐term complications.


          TactiCath can be effectively employed in the treatment of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease with lower forces than previously described in the atrial fibrillation literature. Patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia or atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia may not require transmural lesions and the TC may provide surrogate markers for success during slow pathway ablation.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Novel contact force sensor incorporated in irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter predicts lesion size and incidence of steam pop and thrombus.

          An open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheter was developed to measure contact force (CF). Three optical fibers measure microdeformation of the catheter tip. The purpose of this study was to (1) validate the accuracy of CF sensor (CFS) (bench test); and (2) determine the relationship between CF and tissue temperatures, lesion size, steam pop, and thrombus during RF ablation using a canine thigh muscle preparation. CFS measurements (total 1409) from 2 catheters in 3 angles (perpendicular, parallel, and 45 degrees ) were compared with a certified balance (range, 0 to 50 g). CFS measurements correlated highly (R(2) > or =0.988; mean error, < or =1.0 g). In 10 anesthetized dogs, a skin cradle over the thigh muscle was superfused with heparinized blood at 37 degrees C. A 7F catheter with 3.5-mm saline-irrigated electrode and CFS (Endosense) was held perpendicular to the muscle at CF of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g. RF was delivered (n=100) for 60 seconds at 30 or 50 W (irrigation 17 or 30 mL/min). Tissue temperature (3 and 7 mm depths), lesion size, thrombus, and steam pop increased significantly with increasing CF at each RF power. Lesion size was greater with applications of lower power (30 W) and greater CF (30 to 40 g) than at high power (50 W) with lower CF (2 to 10 g). This novel ablation catheter, which accurately measures CF, confirmed CF is a major determinant of RF lesion size. Steam pop and thrombus incidence also increases with CF. CFS in an open-irrigated ablation catheter that may optimize the selection of RF power and application time to maximize lesion formation and reduce the risk of steam pop and thrombus.
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            Paroxysmal AF catheter ablation with a contact force sensing catheter: results of the prospective, multicenter SMART-AF trial.

            Catheter ablation is important for treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Limited animal and human studies suggest a correlation between electrode-tissue contact and radiofrequency lesion generation.
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              Electrical reconnection after pulmonary vein isolation is contingent on contact force during initial treatment: results from the EFFICAS I study.

              Pulmonary vein isolation is the most prevalent approach for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Long-term success of the procedure is diminished by arrhythmia recurrences occurring predominantly because of reconnections in previously isolated pulmonary veins. The aim of the EFFICAS I multicenter study was to demonstrate the correlation between contact force (CF) parameters during initial procedure and the incidence of isolation gaps (gap) at 3-month follow-up.

                Author and article information

                J Am Heart Assoc
                J Am Heart Assoc
                Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                17 May 2017
                May 2017
                : 6
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1002/jah3.2017.6.issue-5 )
                [ 1 ] Division of Pediatric Cardiology Washington University School of Medicine/St. Louis Children's Hospital St. Louis MO
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence to: Jennifer N. Avari Silva, MD, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 1 Children's Place, CB 8116 NWT, St. Louis, MO 63110‐1093. E‐mail: silva_j@
                © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 13, Words: 4414
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Pediatric Cardiology
                Custom metadata
                May 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.3 mode:remove_FC converted:11.07.2017


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