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      Type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Vietnam: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2000 and 2020


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          The objective of this study was to determine the level of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) in Vietnam and to assess the trend and recommend the future direction of prevention research efforts.


          We searched scientific literature, databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINHAL and Google Scholar; grey literature and reference lists for primary research published, nation database websites between 1 January 2000 and 30 September 2020. We adapted the modified Newcastle Ottawa Scale for assessing the quality of the study, as recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration.


          In total, 83 studies met our inclusion criteria, representing data of approximately 239 034 population of more than 15 years of age in Vietnam. The findings show that prevalence rates varied widely across studies, from 1.0% to 29.0% for T2DM and 2.0% to 47.0% for HTN. For the total study period, pooled prevalence of T2DM and HTN in Vietnam for all studies was 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0% to 7.0%) and 25% (95% CI: 19% to 31%), respectively. Prevalence rate of both T2DM and HTN was higher among the male population compared with female counterpart.


          There is evidence of a rising trend of HTN and T2DM prevalence in Vietnam. Future research should focus on the major drivers, incidence and prognosis of T2DM and HTN. Policy approaches should base upon the trends of T2DM and HTN in Vietnam over the last 20 years and pay more attention on the effective interventions to combat T2DM and HTN. In our study, we included both English and Vietnamese language articles and seems that majority of the articles came from Vietnamese language.

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          NCD Countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4

          The third UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) on Sept 27, 2018, will review national and global progress towards the prevention and control of NCDs, and provide an opportunity to renew, reinforce, and enhance commitments to reduce their burden. NCD Countdown 2030 is an independent collaboration to inform policies that aim to reduce the worldwide burden of NCDs, and to ensure accountability towards this aim. In 2016, an estimated 40·5 million (71%) of the 56·9 million worldwide deaths were from NCDs. Of these, an estimated 1·7 million (4% of NCD deaths) occurred in people younger than 30 years of age, 15·2 million (38%) in people aged between 30 years and 70 years, and 23·6 million (58%) in people aged 70 years and older. An estimated 32·2 million NCD deaths (80%) were due to cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes, and another 8·3 million (20%) were from other NCDs. Women in 164 (88%) and men in 165 (89%) of 186 countries and territories had a higher probability of dying before 70 years of age from an NCD than from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions combined. Globally, the lowest risks of NCD mortality in 2016 were seen in high-income countries in Asia-Pacific, western Europe, and Australasia, and in Canada. The highest risks of dying from NCDs were observed in low-income and middle-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and, for men, in central Asia and eastern Europe. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4-a one-third reduction, relative to 2015 levels, in the probability of dying between 30 years and 70 years of age from cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes by 2030-will be achieved in 35 countries (19%) for women, and 30 (16%) for men, if these countries maintain or surpass their 2010-2016 rate of decline in NCD mortality. Most of these are high-income countries with already-low NCD mortality, and countries in central and eastern Europe. An additional 50 (27%) countries for women and 35 (19%) for men are projected to achieve such a reduction in the subsequent decade, and thus, with slight acceleration of decline, could meet the 2030 target. 86 (46%) countries for women and 97 (52%) for men need implementation of policies that substantially increase the rates of decline. Mortality from the four NCDs included in SDG target 3.4 has stagnated or increased since 2010 among women in 15 (8%) countries and men in 24 (13%) countries. NCDs and age groups other than those included in the SDG target 3.4 are responsible for a higher risk of death in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Substantial reduction of NCD mortality requires policies that considerably reduce tobacco and alcohol use and blood pressure, and equitable access to efficacious and high-quality preventive and curative care for acute and chronic NCDs.
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            A new improved graphical and quantitative method for detecting bias in meta-analysis

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              Trends in prevalence of diabetes in Asian countries.

              Diabetes is a major lifestyle disorder, the prevalence of which is increasing globally. Asian countries contribute to more than 60% of the world's diabetic population as the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in these countries. Socio-economic growth and industrialization are rapidly occurring in many of these countries. The urban-rural divide in prevalence is narrowing as urbanization is spreading widely, adversely affecting the lifestyle of populations. Asians have a strong ethnic and genetic predisposition for diabetes and have lower thresholds for the environmental risk factors. As a result, they develop diabetes at a younger age and at a lower body mass index and waist circumference when compared with the Western population. The adverse effect of physical inactivity and fatty food are manifested as the increasing rate of overweightness and obesity, even among children. The health care budgets for the disease management are meager and the health care outcome is far from the optimum. As a result, complications of diabetes are common and the economic burden is very high, especially among the poor strata of the society. National endeavors are urgently needed for early diagnosis, effective management and for primary prevention of diabetes. This editorial aims to highlight the rising trend in prevalence of diabetes in Asia, its causative factors and the urgent need to implement national strategies for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                8 August 2022
                : 12
                : 8
                : e052725
                [1 ]departmentInstitute for Social Science Research , The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
                [2 ]departmentARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course , The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
                [3 ]departmentDepartment of Social Medicine and Population , Health Strategy and Policy Institute, Vietnam Ministry of Health , Hanoi, Vietnam
                [4 ]World Health Organization , Hanoi, Vietnam
                [5 ]departmentDepartment of Scientific Management, Training, and International Collaboration , Health Strategy and Policy Institute, Vietnam Ministry of Health , Hanoi, Vietnam
                [6 ]Health Strategy and Policy Institute, Vietnam Ministry of Health , Hanoi, Vietnam
                [7 ]UQ Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Nam Tran; n.tranthanh@ 123456uq.edu.au
                Author information
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                : 17 May 2021
                : 20 March 2022
                Original research
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                health policy,diabetes & endocrinology,hypertension,ischaemic heart disease
                health policy, diabetes & endocrinology, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease


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