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      Anti-Breast Cancer Effect of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2,5-Diene-1,4-Dione in vivo and in vitro Through MAPK Signaling Pathway

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          Abstract

          Background

          2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) has been reported to inhibit a variety of cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of DMDD on 4T1 breast cancer cells and the effects of DMDD on 4T1 breast cancer in mice and its molecular mechanisms.

          Methods

          4T1 breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DMDD, and their proliferation, apoptosis, cell-cycle distribution, migration, and invasion were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT, Acridine orange and ethidium bromide dual staining analysis (AO/EB) dual staining, flow cytometry, scratch test, and the Transwell assay. Relative quantitative real-time qPCR analysis and Western blot were applied to examine the expression levels of related genes and proteins. In animal experiments, we established a xenograft model to assess the anti-breast cancer effects of DMDD by evaluating the inhibition rate. The apoptotic activity of DMDD was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. The mRNA expression levels of MAPK pathway components were detected by relative quantitative real-time qPCR. In addition, the protein expression levels of MAPK pathway components were assessed through immunohistochemical assays and Western blotting.

          Results

          Experiments showed that DMDD could inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion of 4T1 cells and induce cellular apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, DMDD down-regulated the mRNA expressions of raf1, mek1, mek2, erk1, erk2, bcl2, and up-regulated the mRNA expression of bax. DMDD reduced the protein expressions of p-raf1, p-mek, p-erk, p-p38, Bcl2, MMP2, MMP9 and increased the protein expressions of Bax and p-JNK. The results showed that DMDD can effectively reduce the tumor volume and weight of breast cancer in vivo, up-regulate the expression of IL-2, down-regulate the expression of IL-4 and IL-10, induce the apoptosis of breast cancer cells in mice, and regulate the expression of genes and proteins of the MAPK pathway.

          Conclusion

          Our study indicates that DMDD can inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion and induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of 4T1 breast cancer cells. Also, our findings indicate that DMDD induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells and inhibits the growth in mice. Its mechanism may be related to the MAPK pathway.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Mitogen-activated protein kinases in apoptosis regulation.

          Cells are continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stresses and have to decide 'to be or not to be' depending on the types and strength of stress. Among the many signaling pathways that respond to stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members are crucial for the maintenance of cells. Three subfamilies of MAPKs have been identified: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and p38-MAPKs. It has been originally shown that ERKs are important for cell survival, whereas JNKs and p38-MAPKs were deemed stress responsive and thus involved in apoptosis. However, the regulation of apoptosis by MAPKs is more complex than initially thought and often controversial. In this review, we discuss MAPKs in apoptosis regulation with attention to mouse genetic models and critically point out the multiple roles of MAPKs.
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            Phosphatase-mediated crosstalk between MAPK signaling pathways in the regulation of cell survival.

            Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways constitute a large modular network that regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. The function of the ERK pathway has been depicted as survival-promoting, in essence by opposing the proapoptotic activity of the stress-activated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 MAPK pathways. However, recently published work suggests that extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activity is suppressed by JNK/p38 kinases during apoptosis induction. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about JNK/p38-mediated mechanisms that negatively regulate the ERK pathway. In particular, we will focus on phosphatases (PP2A, MKPs) as inhibitors of ERK pathway activity in regulating apoptosis. A model proposed in this review places the negative regulation of the ERK pathway in a central position for the cellular decision-making process that determines whether cells will live or die in response to apoptosis-promoting signals. In addition, we will discuss the potential functional relevance of negative regulation of ERK pathway activity, for physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., cellular transformation).
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              Src signaling in cancer invasion.

               M. Guarino (2010)
              Src is a non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase which becomes activated following the stimulation of plasma membrane receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases and integrins, and is an indispensable player of multiple physiological homeostatic pathways. Once activated, Src is the starting point for several biochemical cascades that thereby propagate signals generated extracellularly along intracellular interconnected transduction pathways. Src transmits signals promoting cell survival and mitogenesis and, in addition, exerts a profound effect on the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and the adhesion systems that underpin cell migration and invasion. Because increased activity of Src is a frequent occurrence in many types of human cancer, and because there is evidence of a prominent role of Src in invasion and in other tumor progression-related events such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and development of metastasis, inhibitors targeting Src are being viewed as promising drugs for cancer therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 223: 14-26, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                07 July 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 2667-2684
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University , Nanning 530021, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Renbin Huang; Chunxia Chen Tel +86 771 5339805Fax +86 771 5358272 Email huangrenbin518@163.com; Chunxia251401@126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                237699
                10.2147/DDDT.S237699
                7369253
                © 2020 Zhou et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 14, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 18
                Funding
                Funded by: Guangxi Key Laboratory of Bio-targeted Diagnosis and Treatment Research
                Award ID: GXSWBX201804
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81760665
                Award ID: 81460205
                Funded by: Guangxi first-class discipline project for pharmaceutical sciences
                Award ID: GXFCDP-PS-2018
                This research was funded by the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Bio-targeted Diagnosis and Treatment Research (GXSWBX201804), the Natural Science Foundation of China (81760665, 81460205) and Guangxi First-class Discipline Project for Pharmaceutical Sciences (No. GXFCDP-PS-2018).
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                mapk signaling pathway, dmdd, breast cancer, bcl-2 family

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