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      Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors

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          Abstract

          This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.

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          Identification of dna components required for induction of cotton leaf curl disease.

          Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a major constraint to cotton production in Pakistan. Infectious clones of the monopartite begomovirus cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), associated with diseased cotton, are unable to induce typical symptoms in host plants. We have identified and isolated a single-stranded DNA molecule approximately 1350 nucleotides in length which, when coinoculated with the begomovirus to cotton, induces symptoms typical of CLCuD, including vein swelling, vein darkening, leaf curling, and enations. This molecule (termed DNA beta) requires the begomovirus for replication and encapsidation. The CLCuV/DNA 1/DNA beta complex, together with a similar complex previously identified in Ageratum conyzoides, represent members of an entirely new type of infectious, disease-causing agents. The implications of this finding to our understanding of the evolution of new disease-causing agents are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Cotton leaf curl virus disease.

            Cotton is one of the most important crops of Pakistan, accounting for over 60% of foreign exchange earnings. The present epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) originated in the Punjab region near the city of Multan and was first reported in 1985, although it was noted in this region as early as 1967. By the early 1990s, CLCuD had become the major limitation to cotton production in Pakistan and it has now spread into India and, more recently, south and west into other provinces of Pakistan. The very characteristic symptoms include leaf curling, darkened veins, vein swelling and enations that frequently develop into cup-shaped, leaf-like structures on the undersides of leaves. Identification of the vector of CLCuD as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) quickly led to the suggestion that the causative agent of the disease is a geminivirus. Researchers soon confirmed the presence of such a virus that is currently ascribed to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, However, in 1999, the aetiology of the disease was shown to be more complex than was originally assumed. Despite the identification of both a begomovirus and a so-called nanovirus-like component, the precise causal agent of CLCuD remains uncertain.
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              Characterization of a new world monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Ecuador and Peru reveals a new direction in geminivirus evolution.

              All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related to DNA-A components of NW bipartite begomoviruses. Agroinoculation of multimeric clones of the genomic DNA of three ToLDeV genotypes (two variants and a strain) resulted in the development of tomato leaf curl symptoms indistinguishable from those of ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. Biological properties of these ToLDeV genotypes were similar to those of Old World (OW) monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including lack of sap transmissibility, phloem limitation, a resistance phenotype in tomato germplasm with the Ty-1 gene, and functional properties of the V1 (capsid protein) and C4 genes. Differences in symptom phenotypes induced by the ToLDeV genotypes in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants were associated with a highly divergent left intergenic region and C4 gene. Together, these results establish that ToLDeV is an emergent NW monopartite begomovirus that is causing ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. This is the first report of an indigenous NW monopartite begomovirus, and evidence is presented that it emerged from the DNA-A component of a NW bipartite progenitor via convergent evolution and recombination.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                18 June 2015
                June 2015
                : 5
                : 2
                : 172-176
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Engro Eximp Agriproducts Private Limited , Pakistan
                [2 ] Department of Physics, University of the Punjab , Lahore-54590, Punjab, Pakistan
                [3 ]Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab , Lahore-54590, Punjab, Pakistan
                [4 ]College of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab , Lahore-54590, Punjab, Pakistan
                [5 ] Directorate of Distance Education, Department of Mathematics, Sub Campus Bahauddin Zakariya University , Sahiwal-57000, Punjab, Pakistan
                Author notes
                * Department of Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590, Punjab, Pakistan; +92 333 461 4886; zoobiabashir@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00012
                4500069
                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 5
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