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      Plasticity of Intercalated Cell Polarity: Effect of Metabolic Acidosis

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Acid base, Cortical collecting duct, Cl–/HCO– 3 exchange , H+-ATPase, Bicarbonate transport

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          Abstract

          The cortical collecting duct (CCD) is capable of secreting H<sup>+</sup> or HCO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> depending on the acid-base status in vivo. Transport is a function of two types of intercalated cells in the CCD: A-intercalated cells secrete H<sup>+</sup> and B-intercalated cells secrete HCO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub>. Metabolic acidosis results in a decrease in HCO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> secretion and an increase in H<sup>+</sup> secretion by the respective cells. Using a model of metabolic acidosis in vitro, we have shown that the down-regulation of HCO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> secretion occurs by endocytosis of apical anion exchangers in B-intercalated cells. The finding of basolateral anion exchangers in some adapted B-intercalated cells is consistent with a reversal of functional epithelial polarity. Plasticity of polarity is also observed in cultured intercalated cells: high-density plating results in converting B- to A-intercalated cells via the deposition of the novel protein hensin in the extracellular matrix. A key problem in renal physiology is to investigate the role of hensin in mediating the adaptation of the CCD to acidosis in vitro and in vivo.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Hensin Remodels the Apical Cytoskeleton and Induces Columnarization of Intercalated Epithelial Cells: Processes that Resemble Terminal Differentiation

          Intercalated epithelial cells exist in a spectrum of phenotypes; at one extreme, β cells secrete HCO3 by an apical Cl/HCO3 exchanger and a basolateral H+ ATPase. When an immortalized β cell line is seeded at high density it deposits in its extracellular matrix (ECM) a new protein, hensin, which can reverse the polarity of several proteins including the Cl/HCO3 exchanger (an alternately spliced form of band 3) and the proton translocating ATPase. When seeded at low density and allowed to form monolayers these polarized epithelial cells maintain the original distribution of these two proteins. Although these cells synthesize and secrete hensin, it is not retained in the ECM, but rather, hensin is present in a large number of intracellular vesicles. The apical cytoplasm of low density cells is devoid of actin, villin, and cytokeratin19. Scanning electron microscopy shows that these cells have sparse microvilli, whereas high density cells have exuberant apical surface infolding and microvilli. The apical cytoplasm of high density cells contains high levels of actin, cytokeratin19, and villin. The cell shape of these two phenotypes is different with high density cells being tall with a small cross-sectional area, whereas low density cells are low and flat. This columnarization and the remodeling of the apical cytoplasm is hensin-dependent; it can be induced by seeding low density cells on filters conditioned by high density cells and prevented by an antibody to hensin. The changes in cell shape and apical cytoskeleton are reminiscent of the processes that occur in terminal differentiation of the intestine and other epithelia. Hensin is highly expressed in the intestine and prostate (two organs where there is a continuous process of differentiation). The expression of hensin in the less differentiated crypt cells of the intestine and the basal cells of the prostate is similar to that of low density cells; i.e., abundant intracellular vesicles but no localization in the ECM. On the other hand, as in high density cells hensin is located exclusively in the ECM of the terminally differentiated absorptive villus cells and the prostatic luminal cell. These studies suggest that hensin is a critical new molecule in the terminal differentiation of intercalated cell and perhaps other epithelial cells.
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            Only multimeric hensin located in the extracellular matrix can induce apical endocytosis and reverse the polarity of intercalated cells.

            When an intercalated epithelial cell line was seeded at low density and allowed to reach confluence, it located the anion exchanger band 3 in the apical membrane and an H+-ATPase in the basolateral membrane. The same clonal cells seeded at high density targeted these proteins to the reverse location. Furthermore, high density cells had vigorous apical endocytosis, and low density cells had none. The extracellular matrix of high density cells was capable of inducing apical endocytosis and relocation of band 3 to the basolateral membrane in low density cells. A 230-kDa extracellular matrix (ECM) protein termed hensin, when purified to near-homogeneity, was able to reverse the phenotype of the low density cells. Antibodies to hensin prevented this effect, indicating that hensin is necessary for conversion of polarity. We show here that hensin was synthesized by both low density and high density cells. Whereas both phenotypes secreted soluble hensin into their media, only high density cells localized it in their ECM. Analysis of soluble hensin by sucrose density gradients showed that low density cells secreted monomeric hensin, and high density cells secreted higher order multimers. When 35S-labeled monomeric hensin was added to high density cells, they induced its aggregation suggesting that the multimerization was catalyzed by surface events in the high density cells. Soluble monomeric or multimeric hensin did not induce apical endocytosis in low density cells, whereas the more polymerized hensin isolated from insoluble ECM readily induced it. These multimers could be disaggregated by sulfhydryl reagents and by dimethylmaleic anhydride, and treatment of high density ECM by these reagents prevented the induction of endocytosis. These results demonstrate that hensin, like several ECM proteins, needs to be precipitated in the ECM to be functional.
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              Intracellular Acidification Induces Cl/HCO 3 Exchange Activity in the Basolateral Membrane of β-intercalated Cells of the Rabbit Cortical Collecting Duct

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                21 March 2001
                : 87
                : 4
                : 304-313
                Affiliations
                Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, N.Y., USA
                Article
                45935 Nephron 2001;87:304–313
                10.1159/000045935
                11287773
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 88, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45935
                Categories
                Distinguished Scientists Lecture Series<br>Section Editors: J.C.M. Chan; R.J. Krieg, Jr.; J.I. Scheinmann (Richmond, Va.)

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