21 November 2019
To establish short- and long-term adverse outcome frequencies related to a late diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the absence of newborn screening (NBS) and to determine respective treatment costs, which have never been reported.
We evaluated medical record data concerning 195 patients (141 females) diagnosed with CAH through clinical suspicion and confirmed using hormonal and CYP21A2 analysis, who were followed from 1980 to 2016 at Sao Paulo University. We measured mortality, dehydration, mental impairment frequencies, and hospitalization length outcomes in the salt-wasting form; the frequency of genetic females raised as males in both forms, frequency of depot GnRh analog (GnRha) and GH therapies in the simple virilizing form, and related outcome costs were calculated.
Mortality rates and associated costs, varying from 10% to 26% and from $2,239,744.76 to $10,271,591.25, respectively, were calculated using the Brazilian yearly live-births rate, estimated productive life years, and gross domestic product. In the salt-wasting form, 76% of patients were hospitalized, 8.6% were mentally impaired, and 3% of females were raised as males (total cost, $86,230/salt-wasting patient). GnRha and growth hormone were used for 28% and 14% of simple virilizing patients, respectively, and 18% of females were raised as males (preventable cost, $4232.74/simple virilizing patient).