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      Phytochemical investigation, cytotoxicity and free radical scavenging activities of non-polar fractions of Acalypha hispida (leaves and twigs)

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          Abstract

          Free radicals are involved in the process of lipid peroxidation and play a cardinal role in numerous chronic diseases like cancer, coronary heart disease and ageing. Thus the ability to scavenge free radicals in order to minimize oxidative damage to living cells is very important. The hexane extract of Acalypha hispida (Burn F.) was screened for phytochemical constituents and was found to contain flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenols and alkaloids. Fractions obtained from chromatographic separation were screened for free radical scavenging activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide. Out of the sixteen pooled fractions (S 1-S 16) screened, compounds S 10 (91.8 %), S 11 (93.8 %), S 14 (92.5 %) and S 15 (91.4 %) at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml had significant antioxidant activities when compared to the known antioxidant ascorbic acid (90.9 %). However, in the analysis using hydrogen peroxide, S 1 (99.5 %), S 9 (99.2 %), S 10 (95.4 %),S 11 (95.8 %) and S 15 (95.6 %) gave better activity than ascorbic acid (94.8 %), while only S 1 and S 9 were more effective than butylated hydroxylanisole (98.9 %) and α-Tocopherol (99.1 %) at the same concentration. The cytotoxicity analysis using the Brine Shrimp lethality test gave LC 50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml for some of the fractions indicating very low level of toxicity. The better scavenging activity of A. hispida could be linked to the presence of secondary plant products like flavonoids and phenols, which have the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxy radicals.

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          Natural products in drug discovery and development.

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            Is Open Access

            Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

            Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits, vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They are mostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins and phenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis, anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascular protection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activating endogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, activator protein-1(AP-1) DNA binding, glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 ] activation, and the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). This paper covers the most recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action and protective effects of dietary polyphenols.
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              The influence of natural products upon drug discovery.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI Journal
                Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors
                1611-2156
                24 January 2011
                2011
                : 10
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Natural products/Organic Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Patricia A Onocha, Natural products/Organic Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Telephone: +234 0703 6015339, E-mail: triciaonocha@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                2011-001 Doc1
                5109007
                5c354b9e-07db-4e1d-9d6d-136f8085cc90
                Copyright © 2011 Onocha et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the following Assignment of Rights http://www.excli.de/documents/assignment_of_rights.pdf. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                phytochemical constituents,free-radical,cytotoxicity,flavonoids,acalypha hispida,2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical

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