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      Hawking Radiation: A Comparison of Pure-state and Thermal Descriptions

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          Abstract

          The cases of the Hawking radiation field being described by a pure state and by the usual thermal state are compared within the CGHS dilaton gravity model. The field-strength fluctuations of the Fourier modes are computed, showing a discrepancy in the low-energy regime, while coinciding at high energies. Then by defining a distance for density operators and evaluating it for the cases concerned, the difference between the pure and thermal descriptions is quantified and found to be exponentially small with respect to the Hawking temperature. Possible physical interpretations are discussed.

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          The Black Hole in Three Dimensional Space Time

          The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution. The 2+1 black hole -characterized by mass, angular momentum and charge, defined by flux integrals at infinity- is quite similar to its 3+1 counterpart. Anti-de Sitter space appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum. Evaluation of the partition function yields that the entropy is equal to twice the perimeter length of the horizon.
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            The foundations of statistical mechanics from entanglement: Individual states vs. averages

            We consider an alternative approach to the foundations of statistical mechanics, in which subjective randomness, ensemble-averaging or time-averaging are not required. Instead, the universe (i.e. the system together with a sufficiently large environment) is in a quantum pure state subject to a global constraint, and thermalisation results from entanglement between system and environment. We formulate and prove a "General Canonical Principle", which states that the system will be thermalised for almost all pure states of the universe, and provide rigorous quantitative bounds using Levy's Lemma.
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              Evanescent Black Holes

              A renormalizable theory of quantum gravity coupled to a dilaton and conformal matter in two space-time dimensions is analyzed. The theory is shown to be exactly solvable classically. Included among the exact classical solutions are configurations describing the formation of a black hole by collapsing matter. The problem of Hawking radiation and backreaction of the metric is analyzed to leading order in a \(1/N\) expansion, where \(N\) is the number of matter fields. The results suggest that the collapsing matter radiates away all of its energy before an event horizon has a chance to form, and black holes thereby disappear from the quantum mechanical spectrum. It is argued that the matter asymptotically approaches a zero-energy ``bound state'' which can carry global quantum numbers and that a unitary \(S\)-matrix including such states should exist.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2017-03-15
                Article
                1703.05373

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                37 pages, 5 figures, Master thesis at Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universit\"at Bonn and Universit\"at zu K\"oln, submission version, XeLaTeX
                gr-qc

                General relativity & Quantum cosmology

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