Estrogens prevent or diminish the sensitivity to dopamine of prolactin (PRL) secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells. Cultured tumor cells prepared from a transplantable rat PRL-secreting tumor were insensitive to dopamine and bromocriptine, while the antiestrogen tamoxifen restored this sensitivity. Cultured normal human pituitary cells were shown to be more sensitive to dopamine, if they were preincubated with estradiol, while cultured human prolactinoma cells became insensitive to bromocriptine after they were exposed to estrogens. This sensitivity was restored, however, by tamoxifen. These results point to an important species difference between primates and rodents with regard to the normal regulation of PRL secretion.