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      Insight into Cellular Uptake and Intracellular Trafficking of Nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Nanoparticle science is rapidly changing the landscape of various scientific fields and defining new technological platforms. This is perhaps even more evident in the field of nanomedicine whereby nanoparticles have been used as a tool for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. However, despite the tremendous benefit conferred, common pitfalls of this technology is its potential short and long-term effects on the human body. To understand these issues, many scientific studies have been carried out. This review attempts to shed light on some of these studies and its outcomes. The topics that were examined in this review include the different possible uptake pathways of nanoparticles and intracellular trafficking routes. Additionally, the effect of physicochemical properties of nanoparticle such as size, shape, charge and surface chemistry in determining the mechanism of uptake and biological function of nanoparticles are also addressed.

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          Most cited references139

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          Regulated portals of entry into the cell.

          The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. 'Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.
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            Cellular uptake of nanoparticles: journey inside the cell

            Cellular association and trafficking of nanoscale materials enables us to both understand and exploit context-dependent phenomena in various disease states, their pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic approaches. Nanoscale materials are increasingly found in consumer goods, electronics, and pharmaceuticals. While these particles interact with the body in myriad ways, their beneficial and/or deleterious effects ultimately arise from interactions at the cellular and subcellular level. Nanoparticles (NPs) can modulate cell fate, induce or prevent mutations, initiate cell–cell communication, and modulate cell structure in a manner dictated largely by phenomena at the nano–bio interface. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have yielded new nanoscale materials with precisely defined biochemical features, and emerging analytical techniques have shed light on nuanced and context-dependent nano-bio interactions within cells. In this review, we provide an objective and comprehensive account of our current understanding of the cellular uptake of NPs and the underlying parameters controlling the nano-cellular interactions, along with the available analytical techniques to follow and track these processes.
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              Nanoparticle-mediated cellular response is size-dependent.

              Nanostructures of different sizes, shapes and material properties have many applications in biomedical imaging, clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. In spite of what has been achieved so far, a complete understanding of how cells interact with nanostructures of well-defined sizes, at the molecular level, remains poorly understood. Here we show that gold and silver nanoparticles coated with antibodies can regulate the process of membrane receptor internalization. The binding and activation of membrane receptors and subsequent protein expression strongly depend on nanoparticle size. Although all nanoparticles within the 2-100 nm size range were found to alter signalling processes essential for basic cell functions (including cell death), 40- and 50-nm nanoparticles demonstrated the greatest effect. These results show that nanoparticles should no longer be viewed as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but can also play an active role in mediating biological effects. The findings presented here may assist in the design of nanoscale delivery and therapeutic systems and provide insights into nanotoxicity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +6-046-534-853 , Parisa.forooz@gmail.com
                +6-046-532-473 , lan@usm.my
                Journal
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Research Letters
                Springer US (New York )
                1931-7573
                1556-276X
                25 October 2018
                25 October 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 339
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 3534, GRID grid.11875.3a, School of Physics, , Universiti Sains Malaysia, ; 11800 Gelugor, Penang Malaysia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 3534, GRID grid.11875.3a, Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), , Universiti Sains Malaysia, ; 11800 Gelugor, Penang Malaysia
                Article
                2728
                10.1186/s11671-018-2728-6
                6202307
                30361809
                5c59b3b0-0ed3-47f0-b7cc-4e75ffb1ca82
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 1 May 2018
                : 24 September 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: Universiti Sains Malaysia KPT-TRGS /203/PFIZIK/6711560
                Categories
                Nano Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Nanomaterials
                nanoparticles,cellular uptake,intracellular trafficking,nanomedicine,cytotoxicity
                Nanomaterials
                nanoparticles, cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, nanomedicine, cytotoxicity

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