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      Biodiversity hotspots and Ocbil theory

      , ,

      Plant and Soil

      Springer Nature

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          The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change.

           K. Miller (2005)
          We review Phanerozoic sea-level changes [543 million years ago (Ma) to the present] on various time scales and present a new sea-level record for the past 100 million years (My). Long-term sea level peaked at 100 +/- 50 meters during the Cretaceous, implying that ocean-crust production rates were much lower than previously inferred. Sea level mirrors oxygen isotope variations, reflecting ice-volume change on the 10(4)- to 10(6)-year scale, but a link between oxygen isotope and sea level on the 10(7)-year scale must be due to temperature changes that we attribute to tectonically controlled carbon dioxide variations. Sea-level change has influenced phytoplankton evolution, ocean chemistry, and the loci of carbonate, organic carbon, and siliciclastic sediment burial. Over the past 100 My, sea-level changes reflect global climate evolution from a time of ephemeral Antarctic ice sheets (100 to 33 Ma), through a time of large ice sheets primarily in Antarctica (33 to 2.5 Ma), to a world with large Antarctic and large, variable Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (2.5 Ma to the present).
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            Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis

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              Plant nutrient-acquisition strategies change with soil age.

              Nitrogen (N) tends to limit plant productivity on young soils; phosphorus (P) becomes increasingly limiting in ancient soils because it gradually disappears through leaching and erosion. Plant traits that are regarded as adaptations to N- and P-limited conditions include mycorrhizas and cluster roots. Mycorrhizas 'scavenge' P from solution or 'mine' insoluble organic N. Cluster roots function in severely P-impoverished landscapes, 'mining' P fixed as insoluble inorganic phosphates. The 'scavenging' and 'mining' strategies of mycorrhizal species without and non-mycorrhizal species with cluster roots, respectively, allow functioning on soils that differ markedly in P availability. Based on recent advances in our understanding of these contrasting strategies of nutrient acquisition, we provide an explanation for the distribution of mycorrhizal species on less P-impoverished soils, and for why, globally, cluster-bearing species dominate on severely P-impoverished, ancient soils, where P sensitivity is relatively common.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant and Soil
                Plant Soil
                Springer Nature
                0032-079X
                1573-5036
                June 2016
                December 2015
                : 403
                : 1-2
                : 167-216
                Article
                10.1007/s11104-015-2764-2
                © 2016

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