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      Warming and Nitrogen Addition Change the Soil and Soil Microbial Biomass C:N:P Stoichiometry of a Meadow Steppe

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          Abstract

          Soil and soil microbial biomass (SMB) carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry are important parameters to determine soil balance of nutrients and circulation of materials, but how soil and SMB C:N:P stoichiometry is affected by climate change remains unclear. Field experiments with warming and N addition had been implemented since April 2007. Infrared radiators were used to manipulate temperature, and aqueous ammonium nitrate (10 g m −2 yr −1) was added to simulate nitrogen deposition. We found that molar nutrient ratios in the soil averaged 60:11:1, warming and warming plus N addition reduced soil C:N by 14.1% and 20% ( P < 0.01), and reduced soil C:P ratios by 14.5% and 14.8% ( P < 0.01). N addition reduced soil C:N significantly by 17.6% ( P < 0.001) (Figure 2B,D). N addition and warming plus N addition increased soil N:P significantly by 24.6% and 7.7% ( P < 0.01). The SMB C:N, C:P and N:P ratios increased significantly with warming, N addition and warming plus N addition. Warming and N addition increased the correlations between SOC and soil microbial biomass C (SMBC), soil total P and soil microbial biomass P (SMBP), warming increased the correlation between the soil total N and soil microbial biomass N (SMBN). After four years’ treatment, our results demonstrated that the combined effects of warming and N fertilization could change the C, N, P cycling by affecting soil and SMB C:N:P ratios significantly and differently. At the same time, our results suggested SMB might have weak homeostasis in Sonnen Grassland and warming and N addition would ease N-limitation but aggravate P-limitation in northeastern China. Furthermore, these results further the current demonstration of the relationships between the soil and SMB C:N:P stoichiometry in response to global change in temperate grassland ecosystems.

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          Most cited references 51

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          An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C

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            Nitrogen Saturation in Temperate Forest Ecosystems

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              Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long-term nutrient fertilization.

              Global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes, and observational evidence over the past 25 years suggests that this warming is already under way. One-third of the global soil carbon pool is stored in northern latitudes, so there is considerable interest in understanding how the carbon balance of northern ecosystems will respond to climate warming. Observations of controls over plant productivity in tundra and boreal ecosystems have been used to build a conceptual model of response to warming, where warmer soils and increased decomposition of plant litter increase nutrient availability, which, in turn, stimulates plant production and increases ecosystem carbon storage. Here we present the results of a long-term fertilization experiment in Alaskan tundra, in which increased nutrient availability caused a net ecosystem loss of almost 2,000 grams of carbon per square meter over 20 years. We found that annual aboveground plant production doubled during the experiment. Losses of carbon and nitrogen from deep soil layers, however, were substantial and more than offset the increased carbon and nitrogen storage in plant biomass and litter. Our study suggests that projected release of soil nutrients associated with high-latitude warming may further amplify carbon release from soils, causing a net loss of ecosystem carbon and a positive feedback to climate warming.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                29 July 2019
                August 2019
                : 16
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi University of Finance & Economics, Taiyuan 030006, China
                [2 ]Institute of Grassland Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Key Laboratory for Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130024, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gjixun@ 123456nenu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-431-8509-8937; Fax: +86-431-8569-5065
                Article
                ijerph-16-02705
                10.3390/ijerph16152705
                6696195
                31362434
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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