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      Yi Qi Qing Re Gao formula ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis

      BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

      BioMed Central

      inflammation, apoptosis, puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, tumor necrosis factor, yqqrg formula

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          Abstract

          Background Yi Qi Qing Re Gao (YQQRG) formula is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat chronic nephritis. This study was designed to evaluate the underlying mechanism in the use of YQQRG formula to treat nephrosis induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN). Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 12 rats each: a sham group, a vehicle-treated PAN model group (PAN), and a group treated with YQQRG (PAN + YQQRG). The PAN model was established by a single intravenous injection of PAN at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight; rats in the sham group received the same volume of saline. Twenty-four hour urinary protein was measured 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 days after the injection. The rats were sacrificed on day 10 and day 15 and the serum lipid profile examined. The renal cortex of each rat was stained with periodic acid–Schiff reagent and the pathologic alterations and ultrastructural changes were examined by transmission electron microscopy. In situ cell apoptosis was detected by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5′-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transcriptive levels of inflammatory markers and molecules associated with apoptosis were detected by a real-time polymerase chain reaction and expression of proteins was examined by either immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis. Results YQQRG significantly decreased urinary protein level, and lowered serum lipid level. YQQRG also attenuated histologic lesions in the rat kidneys. Activation of inflammatory markers was largely restored by the administration of YQQRG. TUNEL assay showed that YQQRG decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Both mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were significantly reduced in the group treated with YQQRG, whereas expression of the Bcl-2 protein increased in the YQQRG group. Conclusions YQQRG alleviated kidney injury in PAN-treated rats, possibly through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Inflammatory molecules and pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

          Many lines of evidence, ranging from in vitro experiments and pathological examinations to epidemiological studies, show that inflammation is a cardinal pathogenetic mechanism in diabetic nephropathy. Thus, modulation of inflammatory processes in the setting of diabetes mellitus is a matter of great interest for researchers today. The relationships between inflammation and the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy involve complex molecular networks and processes. This Review, therefore, focuses on key proinflammatory molecules and pathways implicated in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the chemokines CCL2, CX3CL1 and CCL5 (also known as MCP-1, fractalkine and RANTES, respectively); the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, E-selectin and α-actinin 4; the transcription factor nuclear factor κB; and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor. Advances in the understanding of the roles that these inflammatory pathways have in the context of diabetic nephropathy will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In the next few years, promising new therapeutic strategies based on anti-inflammatory effects could be successfully translated into clinical treatments for diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy.
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            The Bradford method for protein quantitation.

             N Krüger (1993)
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              Inducible rodent models of acquired podocyte diseases.

              Glomerular diseases remain the leading cause of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Significant advances in our understanding of human glomerular diseases have been enabled by the development and better characterization of animal models. Diseases of the glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) account for the majority of proteinuric diseases. Rodents have been extensively used experimentally to better define mechanisms of disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets and therapies. The development of podocyte-specific genetically modified mice has energized the research field to better understand which animal models are appropriate to study acquired podocyte diseases. In this review we discuss inducible experimental models of acquired nondiabetic podocyte diseases in rodents, namely, passive Heymann nephritis, puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, adriamycin nephrosis, liopolysaccharide, crescentic glomerulonephritis, and protein overload nephropathy models. Details are given on the model backgrounds, how to induce each model, the interpretations of the data, and the benefits and shortcomings of each. Genetic rodent models of podocyte injury are excluded.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                26014479
                4443657
                10.1186/s12906-015-0673-9

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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