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      Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

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          Abstract

          Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently, without unquestionable demonstration of efficiency. There is a high risk of post-transplant recurrence, except in MCP-HUS. Case reports and two phase II trials show an impressive efficacy of the complement C5 blocker eculizumab, suggesting it will be the next standard of care. Except for patients treated by intensive plasmatherapy or eculizumab, the worst prognosis is in factor H-HUS, as mortality can reach 20% and 50% of survivors do not recover renal function. Half of factor I-HUS progress to end-stage renal failure. Conversely, most patients with MCP-HUS have preserved renal function. Anti-factor H antibodies-HUS has favourable outcome if treated early.

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          Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

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            Genetics of HUS: the impact of MCP, CFH, and IF mutations on clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcome.

            Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy with manifestations of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to non-Shiga toxin-associated HUS (non-Stx-HUS). We undertook genetic analysis on membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement factor H (CFH), and factor I (IF) in 156 patients with non-Stx-HUS. Fourteen, 11, and 5 new mutational events were found in MCP, CFH, and IF, respectively. Mutation frequencies were 12.8%, 30.1%, and 4.5% for MCP, CFH, and IF, respectively. MCP mutations resulted in either reduced protein expression or impaired C3b binding capability. MCP-mutated patients had a better prognosis than CFH-mutated and nonmutated patients. In MCP-mutated patients, plasma treatment did not impact the outcome significantly: remission was achieved in around 90% of both plasma-treated and plasma-untreated acute episodes. Kidney transplantation outcome was favorable in patients with MCP mutations, whereas the outcome was poor in patients with CFH and IF mutations due to disease recurrence. This study documents that the presentation, the response to therapy, and the outcome of the disease are influenced by the genotype. Hopefully this will translate into improved management and therapy of patients and will provide the way to design tailored treatments.
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              Thrombomodulin mutations in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

              The hemolytic-uremic syndrome consists of the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. The common form of the syndrome is triggered by infection with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria and has a favorable outcome. The less common form of the syndrome, called atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, accounts for about 10% of cases, and patients with this form of the syndrome have a poor prognosis. Approximately half of the patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome have mutations in genes that regulate the complement system. Genetic factors in the remaining cases are unknown. We studied the role of thrombomodulin, an endothelial glycoprotein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties, in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. We sequenced the entire thrombomodulin gene (THBD) in 152 patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome and in 380 controls. Using purified proteins and cell-expression systems, we investigated whether thrombomodulin regulates the complement system, and we characterized the mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of thrombomodulin missense mutations associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome on complement activation by expressing thrombomodulin variants in cultured cells. Of 152 patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, 7 unrelated patients had six different heterozygous missense THBD mutations. In vitro, thrombomodulin binds to C3b and factor H (CFH) and negatively regulates complement by accelerating factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b in the presence of cofactors, CFH or C4b binding protein. By promoting activation of the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombomodulin also accelerates the inactivation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Cultured cells expressing thrombomodulin variants associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome had diminished capacity to inactivate C3b and to activate procarboxypeptidase B and were thus less protected from activated complement. Mutations that impair the function of thrombomodulin occur in about 5% of patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central
                1750-1172
                2011
                8 September 2011
                : 6
                : 60
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Robert Debré; Université Paris VII; Pediatric Nephrology Department; Paris, France
                [2 ]Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou; Biological Immunology Department; Paris, France
                Article
                1750-1172-6-60
                10.1186/1750-1172-6-60
                3198674
                21902819
                Copyright ©2011 Loirat and Frémeaux-Bacchi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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