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      Role of Retinal Detachment Subretinal Fluid on Extracellular Matrix Metabolism

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          Purpose: To examine the in vitro effects of subretinal fluid (SRF) from patients with retinal detachment on extracellular matrix turnover. Methods: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was explored by radiolabeled substrate degradation and zymography. Human lung fibroblasts were used to analyze SRF effects on collagen synthesis and cell proliferation. Transforming growth factor-β<sub>2</sub> (TGF-β<sub>2</sub>) concentration was determined in SRF samples by a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results: MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity was observed in all SRF samples. Collagenase activity was not detected in SRF from patients with holes and recurrent retinal detachment. All SRF samples stimulated fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis but SRF samples from recurrent retinal detachment patients with previous retinal tears had the largest effect with the largest TGF-β<sub>2</sub> concentration. Conclusions: The gelatinolytic activity found in all SRF samples might be associated with the retinal detachment process. Low collagenase activity with an increase in collagen synthesis could indicate a risk factor to the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

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          Pulmonary fibrosis: cytokines in the balance.

          Pulmonary fibrosis can complicate diverse pulmonary and systemic pathologies. In many cases the underlying cause remains unidentified. Mortality from the disease is increasing steadily in the UK and USA. The clinical features are well-described, but patients frequently present at an advanced stage, and current treatments have not improved the poor prognosis. There is a compelling need to identify the fibrotic process earlier and to develop new therapeutic agents. Increased collagen deposition is central to the pathology and interest over the last decade has focused on the role of cytokines in this process. These polypeptide mediators are believed to be released from both circulating inflammatory and resident lung cells in response to endothelial and epithelial injury. Key cytokines currently implicated in the fibrotic process are transforming growth factor-beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and endothelin-1. This article outlines the evidence implicating these mediators in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and also considers the possible role of cytokines with antifibrotic effects, such as interferon-gamma. The "balance" of positively and negatively regulating cytokines is discussed, and the potential for interaction with other factors including viruses, hormones and altered antioxidant status is also considered. Finally, potential novel therapeutic approaches are discussed, together with suggestions for future studies and clinical trials. As the outcomes of different avenues of research over the last ten years are brought together, it is clear that there is now a hitherto unrivalled opportunity to begin to tackle the treatment of this devastating disease.
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            Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP, aka EPA): structure, control of expression and biological functions.

            The TIMPs play an important role in regulating the activity of the secreted metalloproteinases (collagenases, stromelysins, gelatinases). Two different TIMPS have been well characterized, each capable of inhibiting all tested eukaryotic metalloproteinases but showing specific binding to a particular gelatinase at a site distinct from the active site. They influence the activation of the prometalloproteinase and act to modulate proteolysis of extracellular matrix, notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes. On certain cell types, they can exhibit growth factor-like activity, and they can inhibit the tumorigenic and metastatic phenotype of cancer cells.
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              Matrix metalloproteinases and metalloproteinase inhibitors in human interphotoreceptor matrix and vitreous.

              We wished to establish which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs) were present in human interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) and vitreous. IPM and vitreous were obtained from postmortem human eyebank eyes. Western immunoblots were probed with antibodies against human MMPs and TIMPs. Assays specific for elastase activity were also performed. Immunoblot analysis indicated the presence of MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinases A and B), MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) and TIMP-1, -2 and -3 in both IPM and vitreous. MMP-7 (matrilysin) and MMP-12 (metalloelastase) were not found in either IPM or vitreous. This is the first demonstration of the MMPs and TIMPs in human IPM and of the TIMPs in human vitreous. While these enzymes are most likely involved in normal turnover within the extracellular matrices that surround the neural retina, they may also play a role in a number of retinal diseases, particularly proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2004
                22 December 2003
                : 218
                : 1
                : 49-56
                aExtracellular Matrix Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, and bInstituto de Oftalmología ‘Fundación Conde de Valenciana’, México, México
                74567 Ophthalmologica 2004;218:49–56
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, References: 30, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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