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      Telomeres and telomerase in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: from pathogenesis to clinical implications

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          Abstract

          Strongly associated with tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequently lethal, heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis is a multistep and multifactorial process involving genetic and epigenetic events. The majority of HNSCC patients present with locoregional advanced stage disease and are treated with combined modality strategies that can markedly impair quality of life and elicit unpredictable results. A large fraction of those who undergo locoregional treatment and achieve a complete response later develop locoregional recurrences or second field tumors. Biomarkers that are thus able to stratify risk and enable clinicians to tailor treatment plans and to personalize post-therapeutic surveillance strategies are highly desirable. To date, only HPV status is considered a reliable independent predictor of treatment response and survival in patients with HNSCC arising from the oropharyngeal site. Recent studies suggest that telomere attrition, which may be an early event in human carcinogenesis, and telomerase activation, which is detected in up to 90 % of malignancies, could be potential markers of cancer risk and disease outcome. This review examines the current state of knowledge on and discusses the implications linked to telomere dysfunction and telomerase activation in the development and clinical outcome of HNSCC.

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          Most cited references 206

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012.

            Cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 25 cancers are presented for the 40 countries in the four United Nations-defined areas of Europe and for the European Union (EU-27) for 2012. We used statistical models to estimate national incidence and mortality rates in 2012 from recently-published data, predicting incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 from recent trends, wherever possible. The estimated rates in 2012 were applied to the corresponding population estimates to obtain the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2012. There were an estimated 3.45 million new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. The most common cancer sites were cancers of the female breast (464,000 cases), followed by colorectal (447,000), prostate (417,000) and lung (410,000). These four cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Europe. The most common causes of death from cancer were cancers of the lung (353,000 deaths), colorectal (215,000), breast (131,000) and stomach (107,000). In the European Union, the estimated numbers of new cases of cancer were approximately 1.4 million in males and 1.2 million in females, and around 707,000 men and 555,000 women died from cancer in the same year. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Europe alongside the description of the varying distribution of common cancers at both the regional and country level provide a basis for establishing priorities to cancer control actions in Europe. The important role of cancer registries in disease surveillance and in planning and evaluating national cancer plans is becoming increasingly recognised, but needs to be further advocated. The estimates and software tools for further analysis (EUCAN 2012) are available online as part of the European Cancer Observatory (ECO) (http://eco.iarc.fr). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Mutational landscape and significance across 12 major cancer types

              The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has used the latest sequencing and analysis methods to identify somatic variants across thousands of tumours. Here we present data and analytical results for point mutations and small insertions/deletions from 3,281 tumours across 12 tumour types as part of the TCGA Pan-Cancer effort. We illustrate the distributions of mutation frequencies, types and contexts across tumour types, and establish their links to tissues of origin, environmental/carcinogen influences, and DNA repair defects. Using the integrated data sets, we identified 127 significantly mutated genes from well-known(forexample, mitogen-activatedprotein kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase,Wnt/β-catenin and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways, and cell cycle control) and emerging (for example, histone, histone modification, splicing, metabolism and proteolysis) cellular processes in cancer. The average number of mutations in these significantly mutated genes varies across tumour types; most tumours have two to six, indicating that the numberof driver mutations required during oncogenesis is relatively small. Mutations in transcriptional factors/regulators show tissue specificity, whereas histone modifiers are often mutated across several cancer types. Clinical association analysis identifies genes having a significant effect on survival, and investigations of mutations with respect to clonal/subclonal architecture delineate their temporal orders during tumorigenesis. Taken together, these results lay the groundwork for developing new diagnostics and individualizing cancer treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anita.derossi@unipd.it
                Journal
                Cancer Metastasis Rev
                Cancer Metastasis Rev
                Cancer Metastasis Reviews
                Springer US (New York )
                0167-7659
                1573-7233
                8 August 2016
                8 August 2016
                2016
                : 35
                : 3
                : 457-474
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Section of Otolaryngology and Regional Centre for Head and Neck Cancer, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Treviso, Italy
                [2 ]Section of Oncology and Immunology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padova, Italy
                [3 ]Immunology and Molecular Oncology Unit, Istituto Oncologico Veneto—IRCCS, Padova, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
                Article
                9633
                10.1007/s10555-016-9633-1
                5035656
                27501725
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Clinical
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

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