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      Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

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          Abstract

          We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

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          ImageJ for microscopy.

           Tony Collins (2007)
          ImageJ is an essential tool for us that fulfills most of our routine image processing and analysis requirements. The near-comprehensive range of import filters that allow easy access to image and meta-data, a broad suite processing and analysis routine, and enthusiastic support from a friendly mailing list are invaluable for all microscopy labs and facilities-not just those on a budget.
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            Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop

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              Parallel human genome analysis: microarray-based expression monitoring of 1000 genes.

              Microarrays containing 1046 human cDNAs of unknown sequence were printed on glass with high-speed robotics. These 1.0-cm2 DNA "chips" were used to quantitatively monitor differential expression of the cognate human genes using a highly sensitive two-color hybridization assay. Array elements that displayed differential expression patterns under given experimental conditions were characterized by sequencing. The identification of known and novel heat shock and phorbol ester-regulated genes in human T cells demonstrates the sensitivity of the assay. Parallel gene analysis with microarrays provides a rapid and efficient method for large-scale human gene discovery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ScientificWorldJournal
                TSWJ
                TheScientificWorldJournal
                TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
                1537-744X
                2011
                17 October 2011
                : 11
                : 1712-1725
                Affiliations
                1Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
                2Department of Agronomic Science and Agro-Forestry Management, University of Firenze, 50144 Firenze, Italy
                3Italian Society of Anthroposophical Medicine, 20121 Milano, Italy
                Author notes
                *Maria Olga Kokornaczyk: maria.kokornaczyk@ 123456unibo.it and

                Academic Editor: Margaret Tzaphlidou

                Article
                10.1100/2011/937149
                3201687
                22125430
                Copyright © 2011 Maria Olga Kokornaczyk et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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