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      Auxin minimum triggers the developmental switch from cell division to cell differentiation in theArabidopsisroot

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          Abstract

          In multicellular organisms, a stringent control of the transition between cell division and differentiation is crucial for correct tissue and organ development. In the Arabidopsis root, the boundary between dividing and differentiating cells is positioned by the antagonistic interaction of the hormones auxin and cytokinin. Cytokinin affects polar auxin transport, but how this impacts the positional information required to establish this tissue boundary, is still unknown. By combining computational modeling with molecular genetics, we show that boundary formation is dependent on cytokinin's control on auxin polar transport and degradation. The regulation of both processes shapes the auxin profile in a well-defined auxin minimum. This auxin minimum positions the boundary between dividing and differentiating cells, acting as a trigger for this developmental transition, thus controlling meristem size.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots.

          Local accumulation of the plant growth regulator auxin mediates pattern formation in Arabidopsis roots and influences outgrowth and development of lateral root- and shoot-derived primordia. However, it has remained unclear how auxin can simultaneously regulate patterning and organ outgrowth and how its distribution is stabilized in a primordium-specific manner. Here we show that five PIN genes collectively control auxin distribution to regulate cell division and cell expansion in the primary root. Furthermore, the joint action of these genes has an important role in pattern formation by focusing the auxin maximum and restricting the expression domain of PLETHORA (PLT) genes, major determinants for root stem cell specification. In turn, PLT genes are required for PIN gene transcription to stabilize the auxin maximum at the distal root tip. Our data reveal an interaction network of auxin transport facilitators and root fate determinants that control patterning and growth of the root primordium.
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            Characterization of an Arabidopsis enzyme family that conjugates amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid.

            Substantial evidence indicates that amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) function in auxin homeostasis, yet the plant enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have not been identified. We tested whether several Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes that are related to the auxin-induced soybean (Glycine max) GH3 gene product synthesize IAA-amino acid conjugates. In vitro reactions with six recombinant GH3 enzymes produced IAA conjugates with several amino acids, based on thin layer chromatography. The identity of the Ala, Asp, Phe, and Trp conjugates was verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Insertional mutations in GH3.1, GH3.2, GH3.5, and GH3.17 resulted in modestly increased sensitivity to IAA in seedling root. Overexpression of GH3.6 in the activation-tagged mutant dfl1-D did not significantly alter IAA level but resulted in 3.2- and 4.5-fold more IAA-Asp than in wild-type seedlings and mature leaves, respectively. In addition to IAA, dfl1-D was less sensitive to indole-3-butyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid, consistent with the fact that GH3.6 was active on each of these auxins. By contrast, GH3.6 and the other five enzymes tested were inactive on halogenated auxins, and dfl1-D was not resistant to these. This evidence establishes that several GH3 genes encode IAA-amido synthetases, which help to maintain auxin homeostasis by conjugating excess IAA to amino acids.
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              A novel sensor to map auxin response and distribution at high spatio-temporal resolution.

              Auxin is a key plant morphogenetic signal but tools to analyse dynamically its distribution and signalling during development are still limited. Auxin perception directly triggers the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Here we describe a novel Aux/IAA-based auxin signalling sensor termed DII-VENUS that was engineered in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The VENUS fast maturing form of yellow fluorescent protein was fused in-frame to the Aux/IAA auxin-interaction domain (termed domain II; DII) and expressed under a constitutive promoter. We initially show that DII-VENUS abundance is dependent on auxin, its TIR1/AFBs co-receptors and proteasome activities. Next, we demonstrate that DII-VENUS provides a map of relative auxin distribution at cellular resolution in different tissues. DII-VENUS is also rapidly degraded in response to auxin and we used it to visualize dynamic changes in cellular auxin distribution successfully during two developmental responses, the root gravitropic response and lateral organ production at the shoot apex. Our results illustrate the value of developing response input sensors such as DII-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatio-temporal information about hormone distribution and response during plant growth and development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                September 05 2017
                September 05 2017
                September 05 2017
                August 22 2017
                : 114
                : 36
                : E7641-E7649
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.1705833114
                5594665
                28831001
                © 2017

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