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      Serum Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Levels and the Clinical Course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas increased levels of serum alpha-1antitrypsin occur in response to inflammation. The effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin levels on the clinical course of COPD had been unclear. We investigated the association of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels with the clinical course of COPD patients based on data from a 10-year prospective cohort study.

          Patients and methods

          We analyzed 278 COPD patients who participated in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study and who did not meet the criteria for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We divided the subjects into 3 groups according to quartiles of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels at baseline: lower group (<116 mg/dL, n = 66); middle group (116 to ≤141 mg/dL, n = 145); and higher group (>141 mg/dL, n = 67). The annual change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1) and events of COPD exacerbation were monitored during the first 5 years, and mortality was followed-up during the entire 10 years.

          Results

          At baseline, the higher group showed lower body mass index; higher computed tomography emphysema score; lower diffusing capacity; higher levels of acute-phase proteins; and higher blood neutrophil counts. Longitudinal analyses revealed that in the higher group, the annual decline in FEV 1 was rapid and the 10-year mortality was higher, but there was no association between serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels and time to first exacerbation.

          Conclusion

          COPD subjects with higher serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were associated with a worse systemic inflammation status and higher 10-year mortality.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

          Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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            C-reactive protein as a predictor of prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an ongoing systemic inflammation, which can be assessed by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP). To determine whether increased serum CRP in individuals with airway obstruction predicts future hospitalization and death from COPD. We performed a cohort study with a median of 8-yr follow-up of 1,302 individuals with airway obstruction selected from the ongoing Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured serum CRP at baseline, and recorded COPD admissions and deaths as outcomes. During follow-up, 185 (14%) individuals were hospitalized due to COPD and 83 (6%) died of COPD. Incidences of COPD hospitalization and COPD death were increased in individuals with baseline CRP > 3 mg/L versus 3 mg/L versus < or = 3 mg/L. After close matching for FEV(1)% predicted and adjusting for potential confounders, baseline CRP was, on average, increased by 1.2 mg/L (analysis of variance: p = 0.002) and 4.1 mg/L (p = 0.001) in those who were subsequently hospitalized or died of COPD, respectively. The absolute 10-yr risks for COPD hospitalization and death in individuals with CRP above 3 mg/L were 54 and 57%, respectively, among those older than 70 yr with a tobacco consumption above 15 g/d and an FEV(1)% predicted of less than 50. CRP is a strong and independent predictor of future COPD outcomes in individuals with airway obstruction.
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              Annual change in pulmonary function and clinical phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Although the rate of annual decline in FEV1 is one of the most important outcome measures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), little is known about intersubject variability based on clinical phenotypes. To examine the intersubject variability in a 5-year observational cohort study, particularly focusing on emphysema severity. A total of 279 eligible patients with COPD (stages I-IV: 26, 45, 24, and 5%) participated. We conducted a detailed assessment of pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) at baseline, and performed spirometry every 6 months before and after inhalation of bronchodilator. Smoking status, exacerbation, and pharmacotherapy were carefully monitored. Emphysema severity was evaluated by CT and annual measurements of carbon monoxide transfer coefficient. Using mixed effects model analysis, the annual decline in post-bronchodilator FEV1 was -32±24 (SD) ml/yr (n=261). We classified the subjects of less than the 25th percentile as Rapid decliners, the 25th to 75th percentile as Slow decliners, and greater than the 75th percentile as Sustainers (-63±2, -31±1, and -2±1 [SE] ml/yr). Emphysema severity, but not %FEV1, showed significant differences among the three groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the Rapid decliners were independently associated with emphysema severity assessed either by CT or carbon monoxide transfer coefficient. The Sustainers displayed less emphysema and higher levels of circulating eosinophils. Emphysema severity is independently associated with a rapid annual decline in FEV1 in COPD. Sustainers and Rapid decliners warrant specific attention in clinical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                10 December 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 2885-2893
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University , Sapporo, Japan
                [2 ]Hokkaido Medical Research Institute for Respiratory Diseases , Sapporo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masaharu Nishimura Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University , North 15 West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo060-8638, JapanTel +81 11 706 5911Fax +81 11 706 7899 Email ma-nishi@med.hokudai.ac.jp
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                225365
                10.2147/COPD.S225365
                6911326
                © 2019 Takei et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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