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      Chronic Kidney Disease and Sudden Death: Strategies for Prevention

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          Abstract

          The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular death is accounted for, in part, by higher rates of serious arrhythmias. Research shows an independent relationship between worsened renal function and atrial fibrillation, heart block, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and asystole. These higher rates also associate with underlying structural heart disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, valvular disease, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. In addition, chronic intermittent ischemia is implicated in the arrhythmias observed during hemodialysis. The superimposed conditions of acidosis and fluxes in both potassium and magnesium also contribute to higher rates of arrhythmias. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate is linked to worsened outcomes and increased defibrillation thresholds in patients receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Preventive strategies include meticulous management of electrolytes, baseline treatment for cardiovascular disease, and when indicated, implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Future research into the mechanisms and prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic kidney disease is warranted.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Benefits of aspirin and beta-blockade after myocardial infarction in patients with chronic kidney disease.

          There have been no randomized trials of cardioprotective therapy after acute myocardial infarction in patients with chronic kidney disease who should be largely eligible for aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) and beta-blockers (BB) as a base of therapy. We analyzed a prospective coronary care unit registry of 1724 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Usage rates were 52.3%, 19.0%, 15.2%, and 13.5% for ASA and BB (ASA+BB), BB alone, ASA alone, and no ASA or BB therapy. Patients who received ASA+BB were more likely to be male, free of earlier cardiac disease, and recipients of thrombolysis. Conversely, the absence of ASA+BB was observed in patients with heart failure on admission, left bundle branch block, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and shock. The combination of ASA+BB was used in 63.9%, 55.8%, 48.2%, and 35.5% of patients with corrected creatinine clearance values of >81.5, 81.5 to 63.1, 63.1 to 46.2, and <46.2 mL/min/72 kg (P <.0001). ASA+BB was used in 40.4% of patients undergoing dialysis. The age-adjusted relative risk reduction for the inhospital mortality rate was similar among all renal groups and ranged from 64.3% to 80.0% (all P <.0001). ASA+BB is an underused therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction who have underlying kidney disease.
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            Outcomes of patients with chronic renal insufficiency in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation.

            Although severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent predictor of mortality among patients with coronary artery disease, the impact of mild CKD on morbidity and mortality has not been fully defined. Morbidity and mortality for the 3608 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation randomized trial and registry were compared on the basis of the presence and absence of CKD, defined as a preprocedure serum creatinine level of >1.5 mg/dL. Seventy-six patients had CKD. Patients with renal insufficiency were older and more likely to have a history of diabetes, hypertension, and other comorbidities. Among patients undergoing PTCA, patients with CKD had a greater frequency of in-hospital death and cardiogenic shock (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). There was a trend toward a larger proportion of patients with CKD experiencing angina at 5 years (P=0.079). Patients with CKD had more cardiac admissions (P=0.003 and <0.0001 for patients undergoing PTCA and CABG, respectively) and a shorter time to subsequent CABG after initial revascularization than patients without CKD (P=0.01). CKD was associated with a higher risk of death at 7 years, both of all causes (relative risk 2.2, P<0.001) and of cardiac causes (relative risk 2.8, P<0.001). CKD is associated with an increased risk of recurrent hospitalization, subsequent CABG, and mortality. This increased risk of death is independent of and additive to the risk associated with diabetes.
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              Coronary artery bypass grafting in dialysis patients

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7683-3
                978-3-318-01049-7
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                July 2004
                20 January 2004
                : 22
                : 1
                : 136-142
                Affiliations
                Divisions of Cardiology, Nutrition, and Preventive Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Mich., USA
                Article
                74934 Blood Purif 2004;22:136–142
                10.1159/000074934
                14732822
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 57, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/74934
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