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      Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

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          Abstract

          Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Excess mortality in a population with diabetes and the impact of material deprivation: longitudinal, population based study.

          To establish the age and sex specific mortality for people with diabetes in comparison with local and national background populations; to investigate the relationship between mortality and material deprivation in an unselected population with diabetes. Longitudinal study, using a population based district diabetes register. South Tees, United Kingdom. All people known to have diabetes living in Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland local authorities on 1 January 1994. Death, from any cause, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1999. Over the six years of the study 1205 (24.9%) of 4842 participants died. All cause standardised mortality ratios for type 1 diabetes were 641 (95% confidence interval 406 to 962) in women and 294 (200 to 418) in men, and those for type 2 diabetes were 160 (147 to 174) in women and 141 (130 to 152) in men. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios were increased for ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and renal disease; no reductions in mortality from other causes were seen. The risk of premature death increased significantly with increasing material deprivation (P<0.001). Diabetes is associated with excess mortality, even in an area with high background death rates from cardiovascular disease. This excess mortality is evident in all age groups, most pronounced in young people with type 1 diabetes, and exacerbated by material deprivation. Aggressive approaches to the management of cardiovascular risk factors could reduce the excess mortality in people with diabetes.
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            Increased mortality associated with diabetic foot ulcer.

            The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between foot ulceration and short-term mortality in veterans of the American military services with diabetes mellitus. A total of 725 diabetic subjects participated in a prospective study of risk factors for lower extremity complications between 1990 and 1994. Mean follow-up was 691.8 days (+/-SD 339.9, range 28-1436 days). Subjects who died during follow-up (n = 72) had a similar mean duration of diabetes to those who survived (12.6 years vs 11.2), but their mean age was greater (65.9 years vs 63.2, p = 0.026). The relative risk (RR) of death was 2.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 4.58) in the subjects who developed foot ulcer (n = 88) compared to those who did not. The risk of death for those with foot ulcer was 12.1 per 100 person-years of follow-up compared to 5.1 in those without foot ulcer. Cox regression analysis demonstrated a greater than two-fold increased risk of death in ulcerated subjects after adjustment for age; diabetes type, duration, and treatment; glycosylated hemoglobin level; history of lower extremity amputation; and cumulative pack years smoked. Higher ankle-arm index was significantly related to lower mortality risk, independent of foot ulcer occurrence. We conclude that foot ulcer and lower extremity vascular disease are related to a higher risk of death in diabetic subjects. The reasons for this excess mortality require further investigation.
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              Risk factors for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy. Results of the Seattle Prospective Diabetic Foot Study.

              To identify risk factors for diabetic lower-extremity peripheral sensory neuropathy prospectively in a cohort of U.S. veterans with diabetes. General medicine clinic outpatients with diabetes were followed prospectively for the development of insensitivity to the 5.07 monofilament on the foot. Of 775 subjects, 388 (50%) had neuropathy at baseline. Of the 387 subjects without neuropathy at baseline, 288 were followed up, and of these, 58 (20%) developed neuropathy. Multivariate logistic regression modeling of prevalent neuropathy controlling for sex and race revealed independent and significant associations with age, duration of diabetes, glycohemoglobin level, height, history of lower-extremity ulceration, callus, and edema; an independent and inverse correlation was noted with ankle-arm index. Risk factors for incident neuropathy in multivariate logistic regression included age, baseline glycohemoglobin level, height, history of ulcer, and CAGE screening instrument alcohol score; current smoking and albumin level were inversely associated with risk. Poorer glycemic control increases the risk of neuropathy and is amenable to intervention. Height and age directly increase risk of neuropathy and may help identify patients at risk. A proportion of neuropathy in diabetic veterans is probably due to or worsened by alcohol ingestion. Neuropathy was less common in current smokers than subjects not currently smoking.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Diabetes Res
                J Diabetes Res
                JDR
                Journal of Diabetes Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6745
                2314-6753
                2016
                24 April 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                1Diabetic Foot Clinic, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
                2Department of Medical Microbiology, King's College School of Medicine, King's Denmark Hill Campus, Bessemer Road, London SE5 9PJ, UK
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Brunella Capaldo

                Article
                10.1155/2016/2879809
                4860228
                27213157
                Copyright © 2016 N. K. Chammas et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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