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      Novel Late Response Genes of PTHrP in Chondrocytes

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          To gain more insight into the downstream effectors of parathyroid hormone (PTH) related peptide (PTHrP) signaling in chondrocytes, we performed microarray analysis to identify late PTHrP response genes using the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line and studied their response in the osteoblastic KS483 cell line and explanted metatarsals. At day 8 of micromass culture, ATDC5 cells have pre-hypertrophic-like characteristics and at this time point the cells were stimulated with PTHrP for 24 and 72 h and RNA was isolated. PTHrP treatment inhibited outgrowth of cartilage matrix and decreased the expression of Col10a1 mRNA, which is in line with the inhibitory effects of PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. Using cDNA microarray analysis, a list of 9 genes (p< 10<sup>–3</sup>) was generated, including 3 upregulated (IGFBP4, Csrp2, and Ecm1) and 6 downregulated (Col9a1, Col2a1, Agc, Hmgn2, Calm1, and Mxd4) response genes. Four out of 9 genes are novel PTHrP response genes and 2 out of 9 have not yet been identified in cartilage. Four out of 9 genes are components of the extra-cellular matrix and the remaining genes are involved in signal transduction and transcription regulation. The response to PTHrP was validated by quantitative PCR, using the same RNA samples as labeled in the microarray experiments and RNA samples isolated from a new experiment. In addition, we examined whether these genes also reacted to PTHrP in other PTHrP responsive models, like KS483 osteoblasts and explanted metatarsals. The expression of late PTHrP response genes varied between ATDC5 chondrocytes, KS483 osteoblasts and metatarsals, suggesting that the expression of late response genes is dependent on the cellular context of the PTHrP responsive cells.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines.

          We used cDNA microarrays to explore the variation in expression of approximately 8,000 unique genes among the 60 cell lines used in the National Cancer Institute's screen for anti-cancer drugs. Classification of the cell lines based solely on the observed patterns of gene expression revealed a correspondence to the ostensible origins of the tumours from which the cell lines were derived. The consistent relationship between the gene expression patterns and the tissue of origin allowed us to recognize outliers whose previous classification appeared incorrect. Specific features of the gene expression patterns appeared to be related to physiological properties of the cell lines, such as their doubling time in culture, drug metabolism or the interferon response. Comparison of gene expression patterns in the cell lines to those observed in normal breast tissue or in breast tumour specimens revealed features of the expression patterns in the tumours that had recognizable counterparts in specific cell lines, reflecting the tumour, stromal and inflammatory components of the tumour tissue. These results provided a novel molecular characterization of this important group of human cell lines and their relationships to tumours in vivo.
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              A constitutively active mutant PTH-PTHrP receptor in Jansen-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

              A single heterozygous nucleotide exchange in exon M2 of the gene encoding the parathyroid hormone-parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-PTHrP) receptor was identified in a patient with Jansen-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, which changes a strictly conserved histidine residue at position 223 in the receptor's first intracellular loop to arginine. Constitutive, ligand-independent adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation was observed in COS-7 cells expressing the mutant PTH-PTHrP receptor but not in cells expressing the wild-type receptor. This finding explains the severe ligand-independent hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, and most likely the abnormal formation of endochondral bone, in this rare form of short-limbed dwarfism.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                March 2007
                25 October 2006
                : 67
                : 4
                : 159-170
                Departments of aPediatrics and bEndocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                96586 Horm Res 2007;67:159–170
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 41, Pages: 12
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