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      Novel Late Response Genes of PTHrP in Chondrocytes

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          Abstract

          To gain more insight into the downstream effectors of parathyroid hormone (PTH) related peptide (PTHrP) signaling in chondrocytes, we performed microarray analysis to identify late PTHrP response genes using the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line and studied their response in the osteoblastic KS483 cell line and explanted metatarsals. At day 8 of micromass culture, ATDC5 cells have pre-hypertrophic-like characteristics and at this time point the cells were stimulated with PTHrP for 24 and 72 h and RNA was isolated. PTHrP treatment inhibited outgrowth of cartilage matrix and decreased the expression of Col10a1 mRNA, which is in line with the inhibitory effects of PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. Using cDNA microarray analysis, a list of 9 genes (p< 10<sup>–3</sup>) was generated, including 3 upregulated (IGFBP4, Csrp2, and Ecm1) and 6 downregulated (Col9a1, Col2a1, Agc, Hmgn2, Calm1, and Mxd4) response genes. Four out of 9 genes are novel PTHrP response genes and 2 out of 9 have not yet been identified in cartilage. Four out of 9 genes are components of the extra-cellular matrix and the remaining genes are involved in signal transduction and transcription regulation. The response to PTHrP was validated by quantitative PCR, using the same RNA samples as labeled in the microarray experiments and RNA samples isolated from a new experiment. In addition, we examined whether these genes also reacted to PTHrP in other PTHrP responsive models, like KS483 osteoblasts and explanted metatarsals. The expression of late PTHrP response genes varied between ATDC5 chondrocytes, KS483 osteoblasts and metatarsals, suggesting that the expression of late response genes is dependent on the cellular context of the PTHrP responsive cells.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines.

          We used cDNA microarrays to explore the variation in expression of approximately 8,000 unique genes among the 60 cell lines used in the National Cancer Institute's screen for anti-cancer drugs. Classification of the cell lines based solely on the observed patterns of gene expression revealed a correspondence to the ostensible origins of the tumours from which the cell lines were derived. The consistent relationship between the gene expression patterns and the tissue of origin allowed us to recognize outliers whose previous classification appeared incorrect. Specific features of the gene expression patterns appeared to be related to physiological properties of the cell lines, such as their doubling time in culture, drug metabolism or the interferon response. Comparison of gene expression patterns in the cell lines to those observed in normal breast tissue or in breast tumour specimens revealed features of the expression patterns in the tumours that had recognizable counterparts in specific cell lines, reflecting the tumour, stromal and inflammatory components of the tumour tissue. These results provided a novel molecular characterization of this important group of human cell lines and their relationships to tumours in vivo.
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              A constitutively active mutant PTH-PTHrP receptor in Jansen-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

              A single heterozygous nucleotide exchange in exon M2 of the gene encoding the parathyroid hormone-parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-PTHrP) receptor was identified in a patient with Jansen-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, which changes a strictly conserved histidine residue at position 223 in the receptor's first intracellular loop to arginine. Constitutive, ligand-independent adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation was observed in COS-7 cells expressing the mutant PTH-PTHrP receptor but not in cells expressing the wild-type receptor. This finding explains the severe ligand-independent hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, and most likely the abnormal formation of endochondral bone, in this rare form of short-limbed dwarfism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                March 2007
                25 October 2006
                : 67
                : 4
                : 159-170
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics and bEndocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                96586 Horm Res 2007;67:159–170
                10.1159/000096586
                17065821
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 41, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Paper

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