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      MiR-193b regulates breast cancer cell migration and vasculogenic mimicry by targeting dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1

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          Abstract

          Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) is responsible for metabolism of an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which plays a key role in modulating angiogenesis. In addition to angiogenesis, tumours can establish a vascular network by forming vessel-like structures from tumour cells; a process termed vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Here, we identified over-expression of DDAH1 in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and BT549 breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. DDAH1 expression was inversely correlated with the microRNA miR-193b. In DDAH1 + MDA-MB-231 cells, ectopic expression of miR-193b reduced DDAH1 expression and the conversion of ADMA to citrulline. In DDAH1 MCF7 cells, inhibition of miR-193b elevated DDAH1 expression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated DDAH1 as a direct target of miR-193b. MDA-MB-231 cells organised into tube structures in an in vitro assay of VM, which was significantly inhibited by DDAH1 knockdown or miR-193b expression. Mechanistically, we found miR-193b regulates cell proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, whilst DDAH1 knockdown inhibited cell migration. These studies represent the first evidence for DDAH1 expression, regulation and function in breast cancer cells, and highlights that targeting DDAH1 expression and/or enzymatic activity may be a valid option in the treatment of aggressive breast cancers.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

           K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Global cancer statistics.

            The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.
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              MicroRNA targeting specificity in mammals: determinants beyond seed pairing.

              Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) pair to 3'UTRs of mRNAs to direct their posttranscriptional repression. Important for target recognition are approximately 7 nt sites that match the seed region of the miRNA. However, these seed matches are not always sufficient for repression, indicating that other characteristics help specify targeting. By combining computational and experimental approaches, we uncovered five general features of site context that boost site efficacy: AU-rich nucleotide composition near the site, proximity to sites for coexpressed miRNAs (which leads to cooperative action), proximity to residues pairing to miRNA nucleotides 13-16, positioning within the 3'UTR at least 15 nt from the stop codon, and positioning away from the center of long UTRs. A model combining these context determinants quantitatively predicts site performance both for exogenously added miRNAs and for endogenous miRNA-message interactions. Because it predicts site efficacy without recourse to evolutionary conservation, the model also identifies effective nonconserved sites and siRNA off-targets.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                julieann.hulin@flinders.edu.au
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                25 October 2017
                25 October 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9685 0624, GRID grid.414925.f, Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders University College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders Medical Centre, ; Bedford Park, South Australia Australia
                [2 ]Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Bedford Park, South Australia Australia
                14454
                10.1038/s41598-017-14454-1
                5656623
                29070803
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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