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      Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes

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          Abstract

          Background

          Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades.

          Discussion

          In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play.

          Conclusions

          Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a ‘diabetes-protective lifestyle’ whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted.

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          Most cited references133

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Observational studies have suggested an association between active smoking and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between active smoking and incidence of type 2 diabetes. A search of MEDLINE (1966 to May 2007) and EMBASE (1980 to May 2007) databases was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles, reviews of abstracts from scientific meetings, and contact with experts. Studies were included if they reported risk of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes in relationship to smoking status at baseline; had a cohort design; and excluded persons with diabetes at baseline. Two authors independently extracted the data, including the presence or absence of active smoking at baseline, the risk of diabetes, methods used to detect diabetes, and key criteria of study quality. Relative risks (RRs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Associations were tested in subgroups representing different patient characteristics and study quality criteria. The search yielded 25 prospective cohort studies (N = 1.2 million participants) that reported 45 844 incident cases of diabetes during a study follow-up period ranging from 5 to 30 years. Of the 25 studies, 24 reported adjusted RRs greater than 1 (range for all studies, 0.82-3.74). The pooled adjusted RR was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.58). Results were consistent and statistically significant in all subgroups. The risk of diabetes was greater for heavy smokers (> or =20 cigarettes/day; RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.43-1.80) than for lighter smokers (RR,1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.48) and lower for former smokers (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.14-1.33) compared with active smokers, consistent with a dose-response phenomenon. Active smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Future research should attempt to establish whether this association is causal and to clarify its mechanisms.
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              Type 2 diabetes in East Asians: similarities and differences with populations in Europe and the United States

              There is an epidemic of diabetes in Asia. Type 2 diabetes develops in East Asian patients at a lower mean body mass index (BMI) compared with those of European descent. At any given BMI, East Asians have a greater amount of body fat and a tendency to visceral adiposity. In Asian patients, diabetes develops at a younger age and is characterized by early β cell dysfunction in the setting of insulin resistance, with many requiring early insulin treatment. The increasing proportion of young-onset and childhood type 2 diabetes is posing a particular threat, with these patients being at increased risk of developing diabetic complications. East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing renal complications than Europeans and, with regard to cardiovascular complications, a predisposition for developing strokes. In addition to cardiovascular–renal disease, cancer is emerging as the other main cause of mortality. While more research is needed to explain these interethnic differences, urgent and concerted actions are needed to raise awareness, facilitate early diagnosis, and encourage preventive strategies to combat these growing disease burdens.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49 176 622 57 211 , hubert.kolb@uni-duesseldorf.de
                stephan.martin@uni-duesseldorf.de
                Journal
                BMC Med
                BMC Med
                BMC Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1741-7015
                19 July 2017
                19 July 2017
                2017
                : 15
                : 131
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2176 9917, GRID grid.411327.2, , Faculty of Medicine, University of Duesseldorf, ; Duesseldorf, Germany
                [2 ]West-German Centre of Diabetes and Health, Duesseldorf Catholic Hospital Group, Hohensandweg 37, 40591 Duesseldorf, Germany
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0768-628X
                Article
                901
                10.1186/s12916-017-0901-x
                5516328
                28720102
                5ca43579-3e89-43d6-953c-9c8a8b3c6ff5
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 14 March 2017
                : 23 June 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: Gesellschaft von Freunden und Förderern der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf e.V
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Medicine
                type 2 diabetes,environment,lifestyle,diabetes risk factors,diabetes prevention,diet,physical activity,β-cells

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