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      Morphological comparison of bleaks (Alburnus, Cyprinidae) from the Adriatic Basin with the Description of a new species

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          Mitogenomic evolution and interrelationships of the Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi): the first evidence toward resolution of higher-level relationships of the world's largest freshwater fish clade based on 59 whole mitogenome sequences.

          Fishes of the order Cypriniformes are almost completely restricted to freshwater bodies and number > 3400 species placed in 5 families, each with poorly defined subfamilies and/or tribes. The present study represents the first attempt toward resolution of the higher-level relationships of the world's largest freshwater-fish clade based on whole mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences from 53 cypriniforms (including 46 newly determined sequences) plus 6 outgroups. Unambiguously aligned, concatenated mt genome sequences (14,563 bp) were divided into 5 partitions (first, second, and third codon positions of the protein-coding genes, rRNA genes, and tRNA genes), and partitioned Bayesian analyses were conducted, with protein-coding genes being treated in 3 different manners (all positions included; third codon positions converted into purine [R] and pyrimidine [Y] [RY-coding]; third codon positions excluded). The resultant phylogenies strongly supported monophyly of the Cypriniformes as well as that of the families Cyprinidae, Catostomidae, and a clade comprising Balitoridae + Cobitidae, with the 2 latter loach families being reciprocally paraphyletic. Although all of the data sets yielded nearly identical tree topologies with regard to the shallower relationships, deeper relationships among the 4 major clades (the above 3 major clades plus Gyrinocheilidae, represented by a single species Gyrinocheilus aymonieri in this study), were incongruent depending on the data sets. Treatment of the rapidly saturated third codon-position transitions appeared to be a source of such incongruities, and we advocate that RY-coding, which takes only transversions into account, effectively removes this likely "noise" from the data set and avoids the apparent lack of signal by retaining all available positions in the data set.
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            Phylogenetic relationships within genus Leuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae) in Portuguese fresh waters, based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences.

            To investigate phylogenetic relationships among Leuciscus species occurring in Portuguese inland waters, the cytochrome b gene was sequenced from representatives of the main rivers. This study supports the recognition of the species level for L. pyrenaicus, including populations from the southern Portuguese drainages (Tejo, Sado, and Guadiana drainages), and for L. carolitertii, including populations from the northern Portuguese drainages. The existence of two new species occurring in the extreme southwestern drainages of Mira and Arade is also suggested. The present results support the monophyly of the Mira and the Arade populations, as well as an early divergence of these two lineages. The present-day distribution of Leuciscus species is seen as a consequence of Pliocene and Pleistocene events, such as river disjunctions and posterior confluence in epicontinental seas and river captures. A mixture of haplotypes was observed in the Mondego and the Tejo drainages, which could be a consequence of ancient river captures, with a possible mitochondrial DNA introgression in the Tejo drainage and a recent introduction by man in the Mondego drainage. The pattern of differentiation among mtDNA haplotypes and their geographic distribution is discussed in terms of evolutionary aspects.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              Folia Zoologica
              Folia Zoologica
              Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
              0139-7893
              July 2010
              July 2010
              : 59
              : 2
              : 129-141
              Affiliations
              [1 ]Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia;
              [2 ]Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic
              [3 ]National Museum, Václavské náměstí 68, 115 79 Prague 1, Czech Republic
              [4 ]Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
              [5 ]Institute of Fisheries, Zoology and Water Protection, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Mostar, Biskupa Čule 10, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Hercegovina
              [6 ]Institute of Special Zootechniques, Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Jujar Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
              [7 ]Department of Natural Sciences, U.b. Učakar 108, Sl-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
              Article
              10.25225/fozo.v59.i2.a8.2010
              5ca8d3f2-b078-4d28-a5b9-dc779d77a630
              © 2010

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