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      Demystifying Men's Emotional Behavior: New Directions and Implications for Counseling and Research.

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      Psychology of Men & Masculinity

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Most cited references 22

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          Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables.

           Joshua Smyth (1998)
          A research synthesis was conducted to examine the relationship between a written emotional expression task and subsequent health. This writing task was found to lead to significantly improved health outcomes in healthy participants. Health was enhanced in 4 outcome types--reported physical health, psychological well-being, physiological functioning, and general functioning--but health behaviors were not influenced. Writing also increased immediate (pre- to postwriting) distress, which was unrelated to health outcomes. The relation between written emotional expression and health was moderated by a number of variables, including the use of college students as participants, gender, duration of the manipulation, publication status of the study, and specific writing content instructions.
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            Development of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory.

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              Conflict over emotional expression: psychological and physical correlates.

              This study addresses the construct of conflict or ambivalence over emotional expression. Ambivalence is seen as an important mediator in the link between emotional styles and psychological and physical well-being. Using the "personal striving" framework, a questionnaire measure of ambivalent emotional strivings (AEQ) was designed. In Study 1, 292 Ss completed this measure along with questionnaire measures of expressiveness, social desirability, and intense ambivalence. Women scored significantly higher than men on both the AEQ and expressiveness. In Study 2, scores on the AEQ were found to be negatively correlated with self-reported and peer-rated expressiveness. In Study 3, 48 Ss participated in a 21-day study of mood and health. Expressiveness was positively correlated with some measures of well-being and with daily negative affect. Ambivalence was positively correlated with several indices of psychological distress. Although the AEQ correlated with questionnaire measures of physical symptomatology, neither the AEQ nor the expressiveness measures correlated with daily symptom reports. Results support the contention that conflict over emotional expressiveness is a variable worthy of study in its own right, having implications for research on personality and health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychology of Men & Masculinity
                Psychology of Men & Masculinity
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1524-9220
                2005
                2005
                : 6
                : 1
                : 62-72
                Article
                10.1037/1524-9220.6.1.62
                © 2005

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