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      Chair‐stand exercise improves post‐stroke dysphagia

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          Interventions for Treating Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies.

          Much interest has been focused on interventions for treating sarcopenia; however, the effects have gained little evidence.
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            Is Open Access

            Sarcopenia and dysphagia: Position paper by four professional organizations

            This report was written by the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition, the Japanese Association on Sarcopenia and Frailty, and the Society of Swallowing and Dysphagia of Japan to consolidate the currently available evidence on the topics of sarcopenia and dysphagia. Histologically, the swallowing muscles are of different embryological origin from somatic muscles, and receive constant input stimulation from the respiratory center. Although the swallowing muscles are striated, their characteristics are different from those of skeletal muscles. The swallowing muscles are inevitably affected by malnutrition and disuse; accumulating evidence is available regarding the influence of malnutrition on the swallowing muscles. Sarcopenic dysphagia is defined as dysphagia caused by sarcopenia of the whole body and swallowing-related muscles. When sarcopenia does not exist in the entire body, the term "sarcopenic dysphagia" should not be used. Additionally, sarcopenia due to neuromuscular diseases should be excluded; however, aging and secondary sarcopenia after inactivity, malnutrition and disease (wasting disorder and cachexia) are included in sarcopenic dysphagia. The treatment of dysphagia due to sarcopenia requires both dysphagia rehabilitation, such as resistance training of the swallowing muscles and nutritional intervention. However, the fundamental issue of how dysphagia caused by sarcopenia of the swallowing muscles should be diagnosed remains unresolved. Furthermore, whether dysphagia can be caused by primary sarcopenia should be clarified. Additionally, more discussion is required on issues such as the relationship between dysphagia and secondary sarcopenia, as well as the diagnostic criteria and means for diagnosing dysphagia caused by sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 91-97.
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              Reliability and validity of a tool to measure the severity of dysphagia: the Food Intake LEVEL Scale.

              Dysphagia is one of the most prevalent and distressing symptoms among palliative care patients, and a practical assessment tool is required.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Geriatrics & Gerontology International
                Geriatr. Gerontol. Int.
                Wiley
                1444-1586
                1447-0594
                August 09 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Sarcopenia and Malnutrition ResearchKumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital Kumamoto Japan
                [2 ]Department of Rehabilitation MedicineYokohama City University Medical Center Yokohama Japan
                [3 ]Department of RehabilitationKumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital Kumamoto Japan
                [4 ]Department of Dental OfficeKumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital Kumamoto Japan
                Article
                10.1111/ggi.13998
                5cb443b8-d51f-43e3-a01a-64d5485e3fec
                © 2020

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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