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Training for Prevention of ACL Injury : Incorporation of Progressive Landing Skill Challenges Into a Program

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      Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study.

      Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. Prescreened female athletes with subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury will demonstrate decreased neuromuscular control and increased valgus joint loading, predicting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. There were 205 female athletes in the high-risk sports of soccer, basketball, and volleyball prospectively measured for neuromuscular control using 3-dimensional kinematics (joint angles) and joint loads using kinetics (joint moments) during a jump-landing task. Analysis of variance as well as linear and logistic regression were used to isolate predictors of risk in athletes who subsequently ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament. Nine athletes had a confirmed anterior cruciate ligament rupture; these 9 had significantly different knee posture and loading compared to the 196 who did not have anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Knee abduction angle (P<.05) at landing was 8 degrees greater in anterior cruciate ligament-injured than in uninjured athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes had a 2.5 times greater knee abduction moment (P<.001) and 20% higher ground reaction force (P<.05), whereas stance time was 16% shorter; hence, increased motion, force, and moments occurred more quickly. Knee abduction moment predicted anterior cruciate ligament injury status with 73% specificity and 78% sensitivity; dynamic valgus measures showed a predictive r2 of 0.88. Knee motion and knee loading during a landing task are predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Female athletes with increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads are at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The methods developed may be used to monitor neuromuscular control of the knee joint and may help develop simpler measures of neuromuscular control that can be used to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted interventions.
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        Effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: 2-year follow-up.

        Among female athletes it has not been established whether a neuromuscular and proprioceptive sports-specific training program will consistently reduce the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. To determine whether a neuromuscular and proprioceptive performance program was effective in decreasing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury within a select population of competitive female youth soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. In 2000, 1041 female subjects from 52 teams received a sports-specific training intervention in a prospective non-randomized trial. The control group consisted of the remaining 1905 female soccer players from 95 teams participating in the same league who were age and skill matched. In the 2001 season, 844 female athletes from 45 teams were enrolled in the study, with 1913 female athletes (from 112 teams) serving as the age- and skill-matched controls. All subjects were female soccer players between the ages of 14 and 18 and participated in either their traditional warm-up or a sports-specific training intervention before athletic activity over a 2-year period. The intervention consisted of education, stretching, strengthening, plyometrics, and sports-specific agility drills designed to replace the traditional warm-up. During the 2000 season, there was an 88% decrease in anterior cruciate ligament injury in the enrolled subjects compared to the control group. In year 2, during the 2001 season, there was a 74% reduction in anterior cruciate ligament tears in the intervention group compared to the age- and skill-matched controls. Using a neuromuscular training program may have a direct benefit in decreasing the number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players.
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          A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen.

          The literature has shown that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear rates vary by gender, by sport, and in response to injury-reduction training programs. However, there is no consensus as to the magnitudes of these tear rates or their variations as a function of these variables. For example, the female-male ACL tear ratio has been reported to be as high as 9:1. Our purpose was to apply meta-analysis to the entire applicable literature to generate accurate estimates of the true incidences of ACL tear as a function of gender, sport, and injury-reduction training. A PubMed literature search was done to identify all studies dealing with ACL tear incidence. Bibliographic cross-referencing was done to identify additional articles. Meta-analytic principles were applied to generate ACL incidences as a function of gender, sport, and prior injury-reduction training. Female-male ACL tear incidences ratios were as follows: basketball, 3.5; soccer, 2.67; lacrosse, 1.18; and Alpine skiing, 1.0. The collegiate soccer tear rate was 0.32 for female subjects and 0.12 for male subjects. For basketball, the rates were 0.29 and 0.08, respectively. The rate for recreational Alpine skiers was 0.63, and that for experts was 0.03, with no gender variance. The two volleyball studies had no ACL tears. Training reduced the ACL tear incidence in soccer by 0.24 but did not reduce it at all in basketball. Female subjects had a roughly 3 times greater incidence of ACL tears in soccer and basketball versus male subjects. Injury-reduction programs were effective for soccer but not basketball. Recreational Alpine skiers had the highest incidences of ACL tear, whereas expert Alpine skiers had the lowest incidences. Volleyball may in fact be a low-risk sport rather than a high-risk sport. Alpine skiers and lacrosse players had no gender difference for ACL tear rate. Year-round female athletes who play soccer and basketball have an ACL tear rate of approximately 5%. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Strength and Conditioning Journal
            Strength and Conditioning Journal
            Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
            1524-1602
            2013
            December 2013
            : 35
            : 6
            : 59-65
            10.1519/SSC.0000000000000013
            © 2013

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