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Human fascioliasis in South Africa

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      Abstract

      Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.

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      Food-borne trematodiases.

      An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized.
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        Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

        Food-borne trematodiases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by liver, lung, and intestinal parasitic fluke infections. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2010 study) and a WHO initiative, we assessed the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis, as expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for the year 2005. We systematically searched electronic databases for reports about human food-borne trematodiasis without language restriction, between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2008. We used a broad search strategy with a combination of search terms and parasite and disease names. The initial search results were then screened on the basis of title, abstract, and, finally, full text. Relevant quantitative and qualitative data on human prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of food-borne trematodiasis were extracted. On the basis of available information on pathological and clinical appearance, we developed simplified disease models and did meta-analyses on the proportions and odds ratios of specified sequelae and estimated the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis. We screened 33,921 articles and identified 181 eligible studies containing quantitative information for inclusion in the meta-analyses. About 56·2 million people were infected with food-borne trematodes in 2005: 7·9 million had severe sequelae and 7158 died, most from cholangiocarcinoma and cerebral infection. Taken together, we estimate that the global burden of food-borne trematodiasis was 665,352 DALYs (lower estimate 479,496 DALYs; upper estimate 859,051 DALYs). Furthermore, knowledge gaps in crucial epidemiological disease parameters and methodological features for estimating the global burden of parasitic diseases that are characterised by highly focal spatial occurrence and scarce and patchy information were highlighted. Despite making conservative estimates, we found that food-borne trematodiases are an important cluster of neglected diseases. Swiss National Science Foundation; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Report of the WHO Informal Meeting on Use of Triclabendazole in Fascioliasis Control

          (2007)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town South Africa
            [2 ] Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town South Africa
            [3 ] Vincent Pallotti Hospital South Africa
            [4 ] Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town South Africa
            [5 ] Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town South Africa
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            samj
            SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
            SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j.
            Health and Medical Publishing Group (Cape Town )
            2078-5135
            2013
            : 103
            : 9
            : 658-659
            S0256-95742013000900027

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO South Africa
            Categories
            Health Care Sciences & Services
            Health Policy & Services
            Medical Ethics
            Medicine, General & Internal
            Medicine, Legal
            Medicine, Research & Experimental

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