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      Air Pollution Status in 10 Mega-Cities in China during the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Outbreak

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          Abstract

          Over the past decades, urbanization and industrialization have led to a change in air quality, bringing researchers to a full realization of the damaging effects of human activities on the environment. This study focused on describing air quality during the initial phase of the Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic (since there were fewer anthropogenic activities) in 10 Chinese mega-cities. Using the independent t-test, the means of air quality index (AQI) scores and individual air pollutants concentration during the outbreak were compared with the means before the outbreak. Cohen’s d was estimated to quantify how much difference was observed. Based on the AQI score, the air quality in these 10 cities ranged from excellent (Shenzhen) to light pollution (Xi’an) with 44.8 μg m −3 and 119.7 μg m −3, respectively. In comparison to the 2019 air quality, Guangzhou and Wuhan noted major differences in air quality during the outbreak. Indicators of traffic pollution, particularly NO 2, were significantly lower during the outbreak in all cities. Particulate matter pollution varied, with some cities observing lower concentrations and other higher concentrations during the outbreak. There was a significant decrease in air pollution levels during the outbreak. More researchers should observe changes in air quality during peculiar or major events. Implementation of stringent regulation on vehicle use should be considered in mega-cities. Relevant findings should be employed in emphasizing the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities and support the need for stringent emission control regulations.

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          Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences

          <i>Statistical Power Analysis</i> is a nontechnical guide to power analysis in research planning that provides users of applied statistics with the tools they need for more effective analysis. The Second Edition includes: <br> * a chapter covering power analysis in set correlation and multivariate methods;<br> * a chapter considering effect size, psychometric reliability, and the efficacy of "qualifying" dependent variables and;<br> * expanded power and sample size tables for multiple regression/correlation.<br>
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            New Effect Size Rules of Thumb

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              Severe air pollution events not avoided by reduced anthropogenic activities during COVID-19 outbreak

              Due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, almost all avoidable activities in China are prohibited since Wuhan announced lockdown on January 23, 2020. With reduced activities, severe air pollution events still occurred in the North China Plain, causing discussions regarding why severe air pollution was not avoided. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model was applied during January 01 to February 12, 2020 to study PM2.5 changes under emission reduction scenarios. The estimated emission reduction case (Case 3) better reproduced PM2.5. Compared with the case without emission change (Case 1), Case 3 predicted that PM2.5 concentrations decreased by up to 20% with absolute decreases of 5.35, 6.37, 9.23, 10.25, 10.30, 12.14, 12.75, 14.41, 18.00 and 30.79 μg/m3 in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Tianjin, Jinan, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, respectively. In high-pollution days with PM2.5 greater than 75 μg/m3, the reductions of PM2.5 in Case 3 were 7.78, 9.51, 11.38, 13.42, 13.64, 14.15, 14.42, 16.95 and 22.08 μg/m3 in Shanghai, Jinan, Shijiazhuang, Beijing, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Tianjin, Zhengzhou and Wuhan, respectively. The reductions in emissions of PM2.5 precursors were ~2 times of that in concentrations, indicating that meteorology was unfavorable during simulation episode. A further analysis shows that benefits of emission reductions were overwhelmed by adverse meteorology and severe air pollution events were not avoided. This study highlights that large emissions reduction in transportation and slight reduction in industrial would not help avoid severe air pollution in China, especially when meteorology is unfavorable. More efforts should be made to completely avoid severe air pollution.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                19 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 18
                : 6
                : 3172
                Affiliations
                Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China; crystal2016@ 123456stu.xjtu.edu.cn (C.J.E.); kk.mokoen@ 123456xjtu.edu.cn (K.K.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: yuyan@ 123456mail.xjtu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-(13)-087-506-658
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2832-0746
                Article
                ijerph-18-03172
                10.3390/ijerph18063172
                8003380
                5cbedd21-9f46-43db-909c-988d9a4548ae
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 20 January 2021
                : 12 March 2021
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                air pollution,covid-19,mega-cities,particulate matter,air quality
                Public health
                air pollution, covid-19, mega-cities, particulate matter, air quality

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