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      Profile of Interdialytic Blood Pressure in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background and Methods: Hypertension is a common problem in hemodialysis (HD). However, its behavior during the interdialytic period is not completely known and is infrequently monitored in clinical practice. Thus, for better understanding of interdialytic blood pressure (BP), we analyzed the interdialytic blood pressure profile using 44-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data in 71 unselected, stable HD patients. Results: There was an increase in BP during the interdialytic period (awake day 1: 135/84 ± 23/14 mm Hg; awake day 2: 140/86 ± 22/15 mm Hg, p < 0.05; sleep day 1: 130/77 ± 24/15 mm Hg; sleep day 2: 136/80 ± 24/15 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The correlation between the average 44-hour BP and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) was not significant (r = –0.07 for systolic BP and r = –0.09 for diastolic BP). The number of non-dipper patients was high, 77% on interdialytic day 1 and 83% on interdialytic day 2 for systolic BP. Uncontrolled hypertension (average 44 h BP ≧135/85 mm Hg) was diagnosed in 58 (55%) patients. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension had higher pre- and posthemodialysis BP, higher BP on each interdialytic day and night, and higher night/day diastolic BP ratio on the second interdialytic day. These patients were also taking a greater number of vasoactive medications (1.5 vs. 0.6 in those with controlled BP, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences related to kt/V, hematocrit, or weekly erythropoietin dose between patients with controlled or uncontrolled BP. Hemodialysis shift assignment (morning or afternoon) did not impact on BP levels or diurnal profile. Conclusion: In HD patients, interdialytic BP is often poorly controlled, there is a progressive rise in BP, and a trend toward loss of nocturnal decline in BP as the interdialytic period progresses. Further research is needed to determine whether treatment directed to interdialytic BP changes can alter outcomes in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Nocturnal blood pressure and 24-hour pulse pressure are potent indicators of mortality in hemodialysis patients.

          Cardiovascular (CV) complications are the leading cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. The role of arterial hypertension on the prognosis of CV in hemodialysis patients is not as clear as in the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) on CV mortality in treated hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Fifty-seven treated hypertensive hemodialysis patients (56.87 +/- 16.22 years, 30 men) were prospectively studied. All patients initially underwent an ambulatory BP monitoring between two dialysis sessions. The outcome event studied was CV death; kidney transplantation and deaths not related to CV disease were censored. The duration of follow-up was 34.4 +/- 20.39 months, during which 10 CV and 8 non-CV fatal events occurred. In the 10 patients who died from CV complications, age, previous CV events, ambulatory systolic BP, ambulatory pulse pressure (PP), and life-long smoking level were significantly higher, and the office diastolic BP was lower at the time of inclusion than in those who did not die from CV complications (N = 47). Based on Cox analysis and after adjustment for age, sex, and previous CV events, a low office diastolic BP [relative risk (RR) 0.49, 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.93, P = 0.03], an elevated 24-hour PP (RR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.65, P = 0.009), and an elevated nocturnal systolic BP (RR 1.41, 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.84, P = 0.01) were predictors of CV mortality (RR associated with a 10 mm Hg increase in BP and in PP). This study demonstrates that nocturnal BP and 24-hour PP are independent predictors of CV mortality in treated hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Randomized trials are needed to investigate whether nocturnal BP and 24-hour PP are superior to office BP as targets for antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.
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            Supervised atenolol therapy in the management of hemodialysis hypertension.

            Uncontrolled hypertension continues to be a common problem, particularly in noncompliant hemodialysis patients. Atenolol, a water soluble beta-blocker has a prolonged half-life in renal failure and may serve as a useful antihypertensive agent in these patients.
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              Prediction of hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients.

              There are no universally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We sought to determine the clinical performance of predialysis and postdialysis systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (BPs) in diagnosing hypertension or assessing its control. Seventy patients [77% African American, 46% females, mean age 59 +/- 17 (SD) years, 34% diabetics] on chronic HD underwent a single 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and concomitant recording of BP by conventional syphygmomanometer in the HD unit for two weeks. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) > or =135 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) > or =85 mm Hg on an average 44-hour ABPM. Average ABP was 144 +/- 22/81 +/- 11 mm Hg. Seventy-three percent of the patients had systolic hypertension; 40% had diastolic hypertension, and 24% were normotensive or had well-controlled BP. Area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves exceeded 80% for all BPs, but the thresholds for best sensitivity and specificity were markedly different for predialysis and postdialysis BPs. A two-week averaged predialysis BP of > 150/85 mm Hg or a postdialysis BP of > 130/75 mm Hg had at least 80% sensitivity in diagnosing hypertension. Specificity of at least 80% was achieved if predialysis BP of > 160/90 mm Hg or postdialysis BP of > 140/80 mm Hg was used. There was poor agreement between HD unit BP and ABP values. HD unit BP values can be used to identify the presence or absence of hypertension, although prediction of ambulatory BPs from HD unit BP values cannot be made reliably in individual patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2003
                April 2003
                17 January 2003
                : 23
                : 2
                : 96-105
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and bGrupo de Assistência Médica e Nefrológica (GAMEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; cSection of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, NewHaven, Conn., and Renal Section, VA Connecticut – West Haven Campus, West Haven, Conn., USA
                Article
                68038 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:96–105
                10.1159/000068038
                12481148
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 37, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/68038
                Categories
                Original Article: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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