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      Advances in drug delivery via electrospun and electrosprayed nanomaterials


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          Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques refer to procedures that utilize electrostatic forces to fabricate fibers or particles of different shapes with sizes in the nano-range to a few microns through electrically charged fluid jet. Employing different techniques, such as blending, surface modification, and coaxial process, there is a great possibility of incorporating bioactive such molecules as drugs, DNA, and growth factors into the nanostructures fabricated via EHD techniques. By careful selection of materials and processing conditions, desired encapsulation efficiency as well as preserved bioactivity of the therapeutic agents can be achieved. The drug-loaded nanostructures produced can be applied via different routes, such as implantation, injection, and topical or oral administration for a wide range of disease treatment. Taking advantage of the recent developments in EHD techniques like the coaxial process or multilayered structures, individually controlled delivery of multiple drugs is achievable, which is of great demand in cancer therapy and growth-factor delivery. This review summarizes the most recent techniques and postmodification methods to fabricate electrospun nanofibers and electrosprayed particles for drug-delivery applications.

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          Transdermal drug delivery.

          Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin's barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase its impact on medicine.
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            Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery.

            The past twenty five years have seen an explosion in the creation and discovery of new medicinal agents. Related innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of transdermal delivery systems has been one of the most important of these innovations, offering a number of advantages over the oral route. In this article, we discuss the already significant impact this field has made on the administration of various pharmaceuticals; explore limitations of the current technology; and discuss methods under exploration for overcoming these limitations and the challenges ahead.
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              Surface-functionalized electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

              Electrospun nanofibers with a high surface area to volume ratio have received much attention because of their potential applications for biomedical devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery carriers. In order to develop electrospun nanofibers as useful nanobiomaterials, surfaces of electrospun nanofibers have been chemically functionalized for achieving sustained delivery through physical adsorption of diverse bioactive molecules. Surface modification of nanofibers includes plasma treatment, wet chemical method, surface graft polymerization, and co-electrospinning of surface active agents and polymers. A variety of bioactive molecules including anti-cancer drugs, enzymes, cytokines, and polysaccharides were entrapped within the interior or physically immobilized on the surface for controlled drug delivery. Surfaces of electrospun nanofibers were also chemically modified with immobilizing cell specific bioactive ligands to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation by mimicking morphology and biological functions of extracellular matrix. This review summarizes surface modification strategies of electrospun polymeric nanofibers for controlled drug delivery and tissue engineering.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                09 August 2013
                : 8
                : 2997-3017
                [1 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                [2 ]Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Molamma P Prabhakaran; Seeram Ramakrishna Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Tel +65 6516 8596, Fax +65 6872 0830, Email nnimpp@ 123456nus.edu.sg ; seeram@ 123456nus.edu.sg
                © 2013 Zamani et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Molecular medicine
                electrospinning,electrospraying,gene delivery,growth-factor delivery,cancer therapy,wound dressing


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