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      Obesity and Insulin Resistance, Not Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Are Independent Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents and Young Women

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders that affects females of reproductive age. The characteristic features of PCOS individually have opposing effects on bone mineral density (BMD); however, their cumulative effect on BMD has not been clearly defined. Adolescence and young adulthood span a crucial period in achieving peak bone mass. Thus, a better understanding of the impact of PCOS on BMD in this age group is needed. Objectives: To determine whether BMD is different between young females with PCOS and controls and to identify factors that influence BMD in this population. Methods: Data from four cross-sectional studies with a total of 170 females aged 12–25 years with PCOS ( n = 123) and controls ( n = 47) with a wide range of BMIs (18.7–53.4 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) were analyzed. Participants had fasting glucose, insulin, and free and total testosterone concentrations measured. HOMA-IR was calculated. Whole-body BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression analysis for predicting BMD included PCOS status, menstrual age, obesity, HOMA-IR, and free testosterone. Results: HOMA-IR and total and free testosterone were significantly higher in PCOS compared to controls but there was no difference in BMD z-score between PCOS (0.8 ± 1.0) and controls (0.6 ± 1.0) ( p = 0.36). Obesity ( p = 0.03) and HOMA-IR ( p = 0.02) were associated with BMD z-score. Conclusions: Obesity status and insulin resistance, but not PCOS status, were each independently associated with BMD in adolescents and young women who spanned a wide range of BMIs.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Estrogen and the skeleton.

          Estrogen is the major hormonal regulator of bone metabolism in women and men. Therefore, there is considerable interest in unraveling the pathways by which estrogen exerts its protective effects on bone. Although the major consequence of the loss of estrogen is an increase in bone resorption, estrogen deficiency is associated with a gap between bone resorption and formation, indicating that estrogen is also important for maintaining bone formation at the cellular level. Direct estrogen effects on osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts lead to inhibition of bone remodeling, decreased bone resorption, and maintenance of bone formation, respectively. Estrogen also modulates osteoblast/osteocyte and T-cell regulation of osteoclasts. Unraveling these pleiotropic effects of estrogen may lead to new approaches to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The role of estrogen and androgen receptors in bone health and disease.

            Mouse models with cell-specific deletion of the estrogen receptor (ER) α, the androgen receptor (AR) or the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), as well as cascade-selective estrogenic compounds have provided novel insights into the function and signalling of ERα and AR. The studies reveal that the effects of estrogens on trabecular versus cortical bone mass are mediated by direct effects on osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The protection of cortical bone mass by estrogens is mediated via ERα, using a non-nucleus-initiated mechanism. By contrast, the AR of mature osteoblasts is indispensable for the maintenance of trabecular bone mass in male mammals, but not required for the anabolic effects of androgens on cortical bone. Most unexpectedly, and independently of estrogens, ERα in osteoblast progenitors stimulates Wnt signalling and periosteal bone accrual in response to mechanical strain. RANKL expression in B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes, contributes to the loss of trabecular bone caused by estrogen deficiency. In this Review, we summarize this evidence and discuss its implications for understanding the regulation of trabecular and cortical bone mass; the integration of hormonal and mechanical signals; the relative importance of estrogens versus androgens in the male skeleton; and, finally, the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis.
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              Is Open Access

              Recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

              Study Question: What is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and consumer preference? Summary Answer: International evidence-based guidelines including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. What Is Known Already: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. Study Design, Size, Duration: International evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. Participants/Materials, Setting, Methods: Governance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups, and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis, and translation experts. Thirty-seven societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15 months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. Main Results and the Role of Chance: The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: i) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; ii) reducing unnecessary testing; iii) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and iv) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. Limitations, Reasons for Caution: Overall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. Wider Implications of the Findings: The international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program. Study Funding/Competing Interest(S): The guideline was primarily funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) supported by a partnership with ESHRE and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Guideline development group members did not receive payment. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of conflicts of interest were declared at the outset and updated throughout the guideline process, aligned with NHMRC guideline processes. Full details of conflicts declared across the guideline development groups are available at https://www.monash.edu/medicine/sphpm/mchri/pcos/guideline in the Register of disclosures of interest. Of named authors, Dr Costello has declared shares in Virtus Health and past sponsorship from Merck Serono for conference presentations. Prof. Laven declared grants from Ferring, Euroscreen and personal fees from Ferring, Euroscreen, Danone and Titus Healthcare. Prof. Norman has declared a minor shareholder interest in an IVF unit. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our partner and collaborating societies and consumer organizations, was independently assessed against AGREEII criteria and underwent methodological review. This guideline was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and was submitted for final approval by the NHMRC
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2019
                June 2020
                29 April 2020
                : 92
                : 6
                : 365-371
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
                bDepartment of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
                cInstitute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
                dCenter for Women’s Health Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA
                eDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA
                Author notes
                *Aviva B. Sopher, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 West 168 Street, PH 5 East 522, New York, NY 10032 (USA), ahs32@columbia.edu
                Article
                507079 Horm Res Paediatr 2019;92:365–371
                10.1159/000507079
                32348991
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article

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