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      Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification: identification of infected snails from early prepatency.

      The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
      Animals, DNA, Helminth, genetics, isolation & purification, Electrophoresis, Agar Gel, Mice, Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques, methods, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Snails, parasitology

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          Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP assays were applied for examining infected laboratory snails, it was possible to identify infection from the first day after exposure to miracidia. The potential advantages of these assays are discussed.

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