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      The great rise of Intestinal Research as an international journal 3 years after its language change to English as evidenced by journal metrics

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      Intestinal Research

      Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases

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          Abstract

          Intestinal Research was launched in 2003 by the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. In 2014, its language was changed to English only. It has been listed and searchable on PubMed Central since October 28, 2014. From January 2016, it became the official journal of the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis. The journal received a letter of inclusion in Scopus, the largest citation literature database, from its Content Selection & Advisory Board on August 5, 2016; consequently, the citation data and references of the journal are searchable from Scopus. These events reflect the rapid elevation from a Korean or English journal to an international journal. From this perspective, I would like to provide data that support the journal's elevation based on journal metrics, including the multinationality of authors and editorial board members, citation frequency, and Hirsch index. The number of citable and noncitable articles per year, and the countries of origin of authors and editorial board members were obtained from the homepage of the journal (available from: http://www.irjournal.org/). The total citations per year were also obtained from Web of Science Core Collection. The impact factor was manually calculated, and the Hirsch index was analyzed from Web of Science Core Collection. The impact factor reveals the citation details of articles published over the last 2 years; therefore, this metric indicates the speed with which a particular field of study has developed. A higher impact factor in a given field signifies rapid progress, leading to more frequent citation of recent articles. The impact factor was calculated using the following method, based on a previous report:1 Number of citable articles in 2014 and 2015: A Number of citations of journal articles from 2014 and 2015 available in the database in 2016: B Impact factor for 2016=B/A The Hirsch index is defined as “the number of papers with citation number ≥h and it has index h if h of its Np papers have at least h citations each and the other (Np −h) papers have ≤h citations each.”2 It was originally designed to measure the competency of researchers; however, it is now more widely used to measure the competency of journals or institutes. Frequently cited articles were classified by publication type and the counted or calculated data were presented as descriptive statistics. The numbers of citable articles were 44, 44, and, 48 and that of noncitable articles were 18, 21, and 13 for the years 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. Of the 188 articles published between 2014 and 2016, 52 (27.7%) were noncitable articles. The editorial board members are from 16 countries: six from Korea, four from Japan, three from China, two from Taiwan, two from India, two from the United States of America, and one each from the United Kingdom, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Philippines, and Turkey. Authors were from six countries in 2014, 11 in 2015, and 10 in 2016. In this 3-year period, authors were from 13 countries (Fig. 1). The percentage of articles authored by Korean authors has steadily decreased from 91.9% (57 of 62 articles) in 2014, to 76.9% (51 of 65 articles) in 2015, and 55.7% (34 of 61 articles) in 2016. The impact factor for 2016, calculated using the formula mentioned previously, is 195/88=2.216. Total number of citation to Intestinal Research was 403. Fig. 2 presents the number of citing articles taken from Web of Science Core Collection. The Hirsch index was 8. Of the nine most frequently cited articles, six were of publication type “review” (Table 1). An impact factor of 2.216 and 403 citations from Web of Science Core Collection were unexpected results for the period of 3 years after changing the language to English only (Fig. 2). The impact factor without journal self cites of 2.216 corresponds to the 2015 JCR ranking of 43 out of 79 SCIE journals in the category of gastroenterology and hepatology of which median value is 2.429. The impact factor for 2016 may yet show a consistent increase by April 2017, when the input of data is complete. The frequent citation may have been an effect of inclusion in PubMed Central like other medical journals from Korea.3 The platform of a literature database is important to gain exposure to world researchers and physicians. PubMed Central and PubMed are the most prominent platforms in the field of medicine because they not only provide free access to a large number of studies, 4.1 million and 26 million, respectively, but also have an excellent search function with controlled vocabulary. Therefore, based on journal metrics, the strategy of changing the language from 2014 was successful. Although the majority of authors had been from Korea, their numbers have decreased gradually (Fig. 1). Additionally, the official publication of the regional society and the joint publication by East Asian countries also enabled a higher number of submissions to the journal from countries other than Korea. This could be a factor in the consistent increase in publication year on year. A multi-national editorial board also contributed to the multi-nationality of authors as they can submit their data or recommend Intestinal Research to colleagues. The Hirsch index of 8 for the period of 3 years of publication in English is an excellent indicator of the journal's high performance (Table 1). In comparison with other journals, this value is very competitive. The Hirsch index of the Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions was 5 for 10 years4 and Archives of Plastic Surgery, 6 for 3 years.5 Reviews received a higher number of citations in this journal. This was the case with other journals4 although original articles were highly cited in some journals.6 In addition to journal metrics, the other factor unique to this journal is that it deals specifically with IBD. The other PubMed journals whose scope includes IBD are Journal of Crohn's & Colitis published by Oxford University Press and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Of the three, Intestinal Research is the only open access PubMed Central journal. Another advantage the journal offers is no submission fee from the author or article processing charge. Financial support provided by the publisher has been sufficient to maintain the journal's quantity and quality. The journal deals primarily with IBD of people from Asian countries. As the eating habits, meals, and immunological responses of people from Asian countries are different from North Americans and Europeans, the journal's scope is specialized to Asia. The journal's reputation and brand value should be supported by not only high quality articles but also easy accessibility.7 For easy accessibility, transition to the English language is the first step. Subsequently, more information technology should be introduced in publishing. Then, introducing digital standards of scholarly journal publishing should be considered. The journal is already equipped with full text journal article tag suite extensible Markup Language (XML), CrossRef XML for digital object identifier, cited-by function, and reference hyperlink. For further progression, it is necessary to implement text and data mining, ORCID identifiers, and QR code on the journal homepage.8 Audio recording of the abstract or main text,9 audio presentations with slides, podcasts,10 and audio-visual presentation of the content are other tools that can attract readers and audiences. I also suggest uploading the full text JATS XML files to ScienceCentral (http://e-sciencecentral.org/) to enable automatic translation into 80 character languages and rapid search via Google Scholar. In conclusion, the rise of Intestinal Research as an international journal and its inclusion in Scopus, 3 years after the language change, was possible due to the journal's excellent performance indicated through the journal metrics data, including the impact factor of 2.216; 403 citations in Web of Science; a Hirsch index of 8; and the multi-nationality of authors, who originated from 13 countries, and editorial board members, who originated from 16 countries. Adoption of the digital standard for scholarly journals will further enable the rapid growth of the journal's accessibility and reputation.

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          An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output.

           J. E. Hirsch (2005)
          I propose the index h, defined as the number of papers with citation number > or =h, as a useful index to characterize the scientific output of a researcher.
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            Revision of the instructions to authors to require a structured abstract, digital object identifier of each reference, and author’s voice recording may increase journal access

             Sun Huh (2013)
            In February 2013, I received a message from a database that the Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions (JEEHP) was reviewed for its inclusion in the database. The following are representative of the comments received: Citedness is below expectations; There is no international diversity among authors; Only one issue is published per year; Author instructions need to be described in greater detail. Among our responses to these comments, revised instructions to authors will take effect on May 1, 2013 so that the papers beginning in May 2013 conform to the revised instructions. JEEHP follows Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (http://www.icmje.org/) if otherwise not described in the instructions to authors; however, instead of simply following the Uniform Requirements, there are several stipulations that would be worth explicitly specifying in the instructions to authors. The three most important changes to the instructions to authors are moving from a non-structured to a structured abstract, requiring a digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of each reference, and requiring the authors’ explanation of their paper in an audio recording of the author speaking or video recording in their mother tongue or in English. A structured abstract has gradually become the rule rather than the exception in medical journals. Structuring an abstract with sections such as Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusion, not only provides more systematic information to readers, but assists authors in determining the most important content to include in the abstract. Since most researchers are too busy to read the full text of papers, they usually read only abstracts. A concise and lucid purpose and conclusion in the abstract will lead readers to move to the full text when they find it particularly relevant. Audio or video descriptions of the contents will also increase access to the content for those with disabilities, who share the author’s mother tongue, or who simply enjoy learning in a different modality. Making the audio or video streaming of the authors available on the homepage will promote the content of the papers to internet visitors. Although JEEHP is an international journal indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central, and CINAHL, the number of submissions has remained rather small. In 2012, I received 33 unsolicited manuscripts, and the acceptance rate was 36.4%. The published paper’s authors were from Korea, Nepal, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Fiji, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The 2012 SCIE impact factor manually calculated from Web of Science was 1.222 when only citable papers such as reviews, research articles (original articles), and brief reports were considered. This value is expected to increase year by year. It has been possible by the help of worldwide good reviewers. JEEHP is an online only journal with volume (year) and article number but no issue number. It is not yet possible to publish this journal with multiple issues that can be easily seen in print journals, since the papers are published as soon as possible after acceptance. Beginning in 2013, social network services such as Facebook or Twitter links, QR codes, Pubreader, and an app for the iPad were added. A mobile web version of JEEHP will appear soon. This year, CrossMark, Fundref, and ORCID provided by CrossRef will be introduced to JEEHP. I will do my best to solicit more manuscripts from a variety of countries to provide invaluable information to medical health professionals worldwide. JEEHP has the merits of gold open access according to the Creative Commons Attribution License and no article processing charge on the author side, two significant incentives to researchers to select JEEHP as a journal for submission. Being indexed in a variety of international databases might be an even greater incentive. This year, JEEHP reached its tenth year of publication. The most recent revision of the instructions to authors is just one more step in a decade-long effort to reach the goal of becoming an outstanding journal focused on disseminating the latest knowledge on educational evaluation across the health professions and around the world.
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              How Journal Metrics Illustrate the Transformation of Archives of Plastic Surgery into an International Journal

               Sun Huh (2014)
              In 2012, the official journal of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons began publishing exclusively in English and changed its name to Archives of Plastic Surgery (APS). Through the contributions of the Editorial Board, reviewers, authors, and journal staff, APS has quickly transformed into a truly international journal, with authors and studies originating from all over the world. Journal metrics-such as the number of articles, impact factor, citation frequency, citations per two years, Hirsch index, country of authors, and country of citing articles' authors-are often used to demonstrate quality and influence in academic publication. Although such metrics cannot fully describe the quality of research and ideas reported by the journal, the depth and breadth of the international academic community that has formed around its texts and practices, or the influence of the journal's content on clinical practice, they still provide important insights about the growth and development of a journal. Thus all these journal metrics were gathered and analyzed from Web of Science, SCImago Journal Ranking, Scopus, and KoreaMed Synapse. The proportion of the original articles that reported on research that had been funded was also calculated. The methods are the same as those used previously to analyze other journals based in Korea [1,2]. The results were interesting. The number of citable articles in Korean or English from the journal under its old title, Journal of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (JKSPRS), from Volume 18 (1991) to Volume 38 (2011) was 2,585. The number of articles from APS from Volume 39 (2012) to Volume 41 No. 4 (2014) was 352. From Web of Science, the number of citations of 21 years' worth of JKSPRS was 217 citations of 149 articles; strikingly, in less than 2 years' worth of APS publication, 280 citations of 135 APS articles occurred (up to September 2014). Therefore, the average number of citations per article for JKSPRS was 0.084, while that of APS was an order of magnitude higher, at 0.795. The citations per document (2 years) for APS from the 2013 SCImago Journal and Country Ranking, was 1.074. The SCImago Journal Rank indicator (SJR) was 0.424, which is a ranking of 178 out of 379 surgery journals (47.0%). The countries of authors published in APS from January 2012 to September 2014 are presented in Fig. 1. The countries of authors who cited APS from 2012 to September 2014 in Web of Science are shown in Fig. 2. The Hirsch index from Web of Science was 6 (Table 1), that from Scopus was 7 (Table 2), and that from DOI/CrossRef was 8 (Table 3). The number of funded research articles out of 199 original articles was 34 (17.1%). For many years, the quality of the papers published in JKSPRS was not properly reflected in the journal metrics, not only because many articles were written in Korean, but also because the journal had not been indexed in the appropriate platforms. On the other hand, although 305 out of 387 articles published in APS during the study period were written by Korean researchers, with the English-language journal's broader exposure, its authors have been affiliated with 33 countries (Fig. 1). Furthermore, the authors who cited APS were from 35 countries (Fig. 2), which shows that APS has excellent exposure to readers around the world. The difference in the Hirsch index calculated from each of three databases, Web of Science, Scopus, and DOI/CrossRef, originated from the number of journals and papers covered by the databases. Usually the Hirsch index from DOI/CrossRef is the highest, which corroborates the results found for APS [3]. The proportion of funded articles was rather low, which was not surprising, given that much of APS addresses clinical phenomena, not basic studies. Among the factors that have influenced the radical change in journal metrics, the change in the language might be the most important. In addition, in order to encourage citation by other researchers, the platform has been found to be more important than the open access policy [4]. Since PubMed is the most important database platform in medical research, being listed in PubMed is critical for exposure to an international readership. When the journal is chosen to be included in PubMed Central, it can be indexed in PubMed. PubMed Central only accepts medical journals in English with an acceptable quality of Journal Article Tag Suite XML [5,6,7]. If a journal is not included in PubMed Central, being indexed in PubMed requires being selected for MEDLINE, which has become increasingly exclusive. Thus it is particularly valuable that APS was chosen for PubMed Central on its own merits, including its language and quality. Almost all major medical journals in Korea, including APS, have adopted the following policies and processes: first, changing the language of the journal to English only [8]; second, publishing with open access according to Creative Commons licensing guidelines; third, producing full-text Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) XML; fourth, depositing XML files to PubMed Central and ScienceCentral; fifth, asking PubMed Central to deposit XML in PubMed; and finally, actively recruiting authors from outside Korea. APS has been searchable from PubMed Central and PubMed since July 12, 2012. APS has already provided a digital object identifier, CrossMark, and FundRef for each article [9,10], so Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) is the next tool to be included [11], following international standards. Audio or video files should also be posted on the APS website to increase the visibility of the articles [12]. The development of APS up to its present level of quality and exposure has been made possible by changing the language of the journal to English, producing full-text JATS XML files, and depositing those files to PubMed Central. Therefore, the decision of the Board of Directors of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons in 2011 to change the language of the official journal from Korean to English only beginning with the 2012 issues was a milestone in the journal's history.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Nursing, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Parasitology and Institute of Medical Education, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Sun Huh, Department of Parasitology and Institute of Medical Education, Hallym University College of Medicine, 1 Hallimdaehak-gil, Chuncheon 24252, Korea. Tel: +82-33-248-2652, Fax: +82-33-241-1672, shuh@ 123456hallym.ac.kr
                Journal
                Intest Res
                Intest Res
                IR
                Intestinal Research
                Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases
                1598-9100
                2288-1956
                January 2017
                31 January 2017
                : 15
                : 1
                : 1-4
                10.5217/ir.2017.15.1.1
                5323298
                © Copyright 2017. Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Hallym University, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002632;
                Award ID: HRF-G-2015-4
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